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WWII Tensions and the Origins of the Cold War

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Title: Six Big Ideas Regarding the Origins of the Cold War: Author: AHS Last modified by: CesarC Created Date: 1/15/2009 5:16:22 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWII Tensions and the Origins of the Cold War


1
WWII Tensions and the Origins of the Cold War
  • The creation of the Grand Alliance, the Victory
    of the Grand Alliance, the Atomic Bomb and the
    Coming of the Cold War were not inevitable or
    clearly foreseeable.

2
The Orthodox View
  • The Soviet Union is responsible Soviet
    Insecurity drove them to confront the United
    States.
  • There was nothing the US could have done. The
    Ideological perspective here is that Communism is
    a danger/aggressive.
  • Thus Soviet leaders are driven position to put
    forward dogma which pictures the outside world as
    evil,

3
The Revisionist View
  • The United States is responsible
  • United States needs to have markets and resources
    to feed its economy.
  • The Soviet Union impeded these goals and
    therefore had to be confronted. Economic Issues
    drive US policy.
  • The Ideological perspective here is that
    Capitalism is the danger/aggressor.

4
Post-Revisionism
  • The Soviet Union under Stalin was paranoid and
    difficult to deal with.
  • The United States was driven in large part by the
    fear of another depression.
  • Other issues played a serious role in the origins
    of the Cold War
  • Domestic Policy, Security, Allies, and
    perceptions.

5
White Board
  • Fill in the Blank
  • 1. The Orthodox view is that ___________ is to
    blame
  • 2. The revisionist view is the ______________ is
    to blame.

6
Discuss
  • Which viewpoint do you agree with and why?

7
The End of WWII/The Bomb/ Cold War
  • A-Bomb was a military tool to end War
  • A-Bomb was used as a threat to USSR
  • primarily aimed at the speedy surrender of Japan,
    had a "bonus" effect of intimidating the Soviet
    Union.

8
Big Ideas Regarding theOrigins of the Cold War
  • Number 1
  • Nuclear weapons changed how international
    relations were conducted.
  • Number 2
  • In seeking security needs, both the US and the
    USSR made each other increasingly insecure.
  • Number 3
  • The United States and the Soviet Union both
    created empires in Europe, the USSR by force and
    the US by invitation.

9
White Board
  • Who were the Big 3 during WWII? Country and
    Leader.

10
The Roots of the Cold War World War II and the
Diplomacy Three Visions of the World From 3
leaders
11
1.Franklin Roosevelt US President
  • World View - Collective Security /
    Internationalism (Economic Integration) - The
    Four Policeman (US, GB, USSR, China)
  • Saw victors, along with China, would act as a
    board of directors of the world,
  • enforcing peace against any potential
    Danger!!!!!!!

12
2. Winston Churchill
  • World View - Balance of Power
  • rebuilding GB, FR,, and even defeated GRM.
  • With the US these countries could counter balance
    the USSR

13
3.Joseph Stalin
  • World View Power Politics
  • He strove to cash in on his countrys victory by
    extending Russian influence into Central Europe.
  • Turn the countries he conquered by soviet armies
    into buffer zones to protect Russia against
    future German aggression.

14
Discuss
  • One view that came true for each of the leaders

15
Yalta Conference Feb 4-11 1945 - Roosevelt,
Stalin Churchill
  • 11 million Soviet soldiers occupying much of E
    C Europe.
  • Stalin wanted to create of buffer zone of
    pro-Soviet govts.
  • FDR -self-determination for liberated Europe
  • democratic institutions of their own choice.
  • free elections became a dividing point.

16
Yalta continued
  • FDR wanted Soviet help vs. Japan,
  • Soviets would get-2 JPNS islands, warm-water
    ports, RR rights in Manchuria.
  • Plan Creation -United Nations was agreed upon
  • Germany would be partitioned into four zones (GB,
    US, Fr USSR)
  • The attempt to address the security needs of the
    Soviet Union, create a balance of power,
    establish a workable international system.

17
Discuss
  • The 2 most important agreements made at this
    meeting.

18
Potsdam July 17-Aug 2 1945
  • Truman, Churchill / Attlee Stalin
  • -Stalin had two ideas a new war should be
    prevented, and the Soviet Union should get share
    of the spheres of influence,
  • -Soviets had lost more people and wanted post-war
    communist neighbors
  • -Truman Bragged about a Great Weapon to end the
    War against Japan

19
Potsdam Continued
  • The United States and Great Britain had to give
    up control of Eastern Europe to USSR
  • Truman, demanded free elections in E. Europe.
  • Stalin responded, A freely elected govt. in any
    of these East European countries would be
    anti-Soviet,

20
The Origins of the Cold War
21
The Long Telegram George Kennan (22 February
1946)
  • Created because Soviet did not support a World
    Bank and Monetary Fund
  • The USSR saw itself at a perpetual war with
    capitalism
  • The Soviets prohibited objective or accurate
    pictures of internal and external reality to keep
    order
  • It would be too costly to disarm Soviet Union
  • Suspicion in key part of Soviet Foreign policy
    and must be dealt with

22
Discuss
  • Why would the USSR not want their citizens to see
    or get information from the west?

23
-Soviets angry that US and GB tried to impose
Democracy on the East-Stalin went on to create
what Winston Churchill called the Iron
Curtainfrom Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on
the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended
across the continent. Behind that line lie all
the capitals of the ancient states of central and
eastern Europe -- Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna,
Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. From
what I have seen of our Russian friends and
allies during the war I am convinced that there
is nothing they admire so much as strength and
nothing for which they have less respect than
military weakness.
  • CHURCHILL Iron Curtain Speech
  • March 5, 1946

24
USSR Takes Eastern Europe after WWII
  • IRON CURTAIN-(Churchill)Separate East communist
    and West democracy
  • USSR Army stayed in areas they freed from Nazis
  • Soviet Bloc/ Satellite
  • States / Eastern Bloc
  • Were used as Buffer
  • States allied with USSR
  • to protect from invasion

25
Division of Europe
26
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27
1947 the Truman admin had three major decisions
concerning Europe
  • 1. Restrict Soviet and Eastern European access to
    American trade and capital,
  • 2. Restore Western European productivity and
    commerce, and to reindustrialize Germany.
  • 3. Seek approval for aid to Greece and Turkey
    from Congress.
  • (Had Communist uprisings supported by USSR

28
The Truman Doctrine milestone in American history
four reasons March 12, 1947
  • -Economically and militarily aid countries
    fighting communism (Greece Turkey)
  • -Truman used the American fear of communism to
    convince Americans they must spend on this
    foreign policy.
  • -Congress was giving the President great powers
    to wage this Cold War
  • -Truman's personal popularity began spiraling
    upward after his speech.

29
US anticommunist intervention other nations civil
war
  • Greek affairs started bad but success in the
    (stopped communist rebellion)
  • 1947 US discussed sending two divisions of
    Americans to save the situation.
  • Yugoslavia left the communist bloc in early 1948,
    stopped aiding Greek rebels
  • Success in Greece seemed to prove that Americans
    could control conflicts by defining the problem
    as "Communist"

30
White Board
  • List 2 other Anti-Communist actions the US
    embarked in on foreign soil.

31
Doctrine used to justify aid program to prevent
the fall of the Euro and US economies
  • Later programs expanded globally.
  • Problems of reconstruction and U.S. need of world
    trade were complicated to Americans,
  • Anticommunism easy to understand and supported.
  • From 1947 on, therefore, any threat to that
    Western system could be easily explained as
    communist-inspired,

32
Discuss
  • What type of nations would be more likely to turn
    communist and why?

33
Marshall Plan, June 5, 1947
  • -In 1947 George C Marshall met with Stalin in
    Moscow discuss Germany issue
  • -Marshal felt Stalin hoping for economic fall of
    W Europe to make spread of soviet influence
    easier
  • -Goal to help W European economically prevent
    spread of soviet influence
  • -If nations turn communist US losses trade
    partners and allies
  • -US dedicated to help supported W European
    economies with massive amounts of capitol

34
Success of the Marshall Plan
  • -Plan was a success W Europe began to thrive
    economically
  • -US money help rebuild industries, farming, and
    employment

35
Marshal Plan Countries we helped Recover after
WWII
36
Early Soviet Response Cominform
  • -Soviet-dominated organization of Communist
    parties -September, 1947 Poland
  • -conference in response to question Eastern
    European governments taking Marshall Aid in July
    1947.
  • -Purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions
    between Communist parties under Soviet direction.
  • -Cominform was dissolved in 1956 after Soviet
    rapprochement with Yugoslavia and the process of
    De-Stalinization

37
George Kennan's Containment
  • US, GB, GRM, USSR, JP only nations who could
    develop a possible threat
  • Only one was hostile at that time (Soviet Union)
  • Key interest of the US in world affairs was to
    see to it that no others fell under communist
    Control.
  • CONTAINMENT-Stopping the spread of Communism
  • Soviets goal was to spread communism

38
White Board
  • What two US policies fall under containment?

39
Berlin Air lift 1948
  • Stalin wanted all of Berlin so he cut the city
    off from basic supplies(Berlin Blockade)
  • Force them to join Communist side
  • West Berlin FR US, GB and East Berlin USSR
  • US, GB drop supplies by air.
  • Berlin would be separated Berlin Wall.1961

40
White Board
  • What were the military alliances made by the
    USSR and USA?

41
Alliances
  • Military
  • 1949- NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization-
    Demo countries
  • -1 China turns Communist
  • -2 USSR makes an A-bomb
  • 1955-Warsaw Pact- Communist E. Euro countries
  • Economic

42
USA VS USSR COLD WAR (Super Powers)
  • USA promote self determination
  • Aid rebuild Euro gov to organize trade
  • W. Europe key trade partner help both economies
  • Capitalist
  • USSR Promote Communism
  • Control E. Europe protect USSR
  • Use E. Europe to rebuild USSR
  • Resources and capital
  • Socialism
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