Diet and Cancer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 36
About This Presentation

Diet and Cancer


Diet and Cancer – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:121
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: Trav87
Tags: benign | cancer | diet | oral


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Diet and Cancer

Diet and Cancer
  • Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in
    the US after heart disease.
  • Cancer kills 1 out of every 4 Americans.
  • The risk of developing cancer can be reduced by
    changes in a persons lifestyle.

What is Cancer?
  • Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an
    orderly fashion.
  • Cancer cells are different because they do not
    die, just continue to divide and grow.
  • Cancer cells form as a result of damaged DNA.

What is Cancer?
  • These damaged genes can be passed on, which
    accounts for inherited cancers.
  • In other cases, the DNA is damaged by an outside
    source such as smoking.
  • Cancer usually forms a tumor.

What is Cancer
  • There are two types of tumors Malignant and
  • Malignant tumors spread to other areas in the
    body. These are the dangerous ones.
  • Benign tumors stay in one place.

Types of Cancer
  • Sarcoma-rise from connective tissue such as
    muscle or bone and are more common in younger
  • Carcinomas-which occur in epithelial tissue and
    are more common in older people. It includes
    lung, breast, prostate, and colon.

Types of Cancer
  • Leukemia- cancers of the blood or blood forming
  • Lymphomas- affect the lymphatic system. The
    lymphatic system is a group of vessels and nodes
    that act as the bodys filter. It prevents
    bacteria and foreign invaders from entering the

Causes of Cancer
  • 80 are considered sporadic- meaning the cause
    is unknown. There are several risk factors that
    increase the chance of cancer
  • Age- risk increases gt50.
  • Diet- high fat, high cholesterol diets increase

Causes of Cancer
  • Obesity- no clear link but research indicates it
    is a factor
  • Cigarettes- increases lung cancer, other tobacco
    products such as pipes and chewing tobacco
    increase cancers of the mouth.
  • Long term exposure to chemicals- asbestos, radon
    and benzene.

Causes of Cancer
  • Exposure to high levels of radiation
  • Harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun.
  • Some viruses- Hepatitis B, C, HPV, Epsteinn-Barr.
  • Immune system diseases

Causes of Cancer
  • Heredity
  • Screenings are recommended for high risk
    families. You are considered high risk if
    Several relatives have had cancer or if someone
    had cancer at a very early age.

Symptoms of Cancer
  • Remember one word CAUTION
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits.
  • A sore that will not heal.
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or lump in breast or any part of the

  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing.
  • Obvious change in any wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness.

Diagnosis of Cancer
  • Biopsy- small tissue sample under a microscope to
    look for cancerous cells.
  • Endoscopy- a flexible plastic tube with a tiny
  • Diagnostic Imaging- x rays

Diagnosis of Cancer
  • CAT scan- more precise than standard x-ray.
  • MRI- uses a powerful magnetic field, very
    accurate but expensive.
  • Blood Tests- some tumors release substances
    called tumor markers which can be found in the

Treatment of Cancer
  • Types of treatment
  • Surgery- 60 of all cancer pts. have some kind of
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy

Diet and Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society recommends 4 rules of
    thumb for cancer prevention
  • Choose most of the foods you eat from plant
    sources. 5 or more servings
  • Limit intake of high fat foods, particularly from
    animal sources.

Diet and Cancer
  • Be physically active.
  • Limit alcohol intake.

Dietary Components Associated with Cancer
  • Excesses of Certain substances such as
  • Fat- the end products of metabolism have been
    found to be carcinogenic.
  • Alcohol- has been connected with liver,
    colorectal, and breast cancers.
  • Pickled and Smoked Foods- related to cancers of
    the esophagus and stomach. that may increase the

Dietary Components Associated with Cancer
  • Cooking methods have also been found to have a
    role in cancer. Frying or charcoal-broiling
    meats at very high temperatures creates chemicals

Protective Dietary Components
  • Certain foods and nutrients have been shown to
    protect against certain types of cancers.
  • Vitamin C - has been shown to protect against
    cancer of stomach, esophagus, and oral cavity.
  • antioxidants- these are certain nutrients found
    in fruits and vegetables.

Protective Dietary Components
  • Fruits and Veggies- contain vitamins, fiber and
  • Vitamin E and selenium- both antioxidants that
    protect cells against breakdown.
  • Calcium- Calcium reduces cell turnover rates.
  • Water- drinking more than 5 glasses a day has
    been associated with a lower risk of cancer.

Diet and Cancer
  • Fiber- Insoluble fiber is connected to decreased
    risk of colon cancer.
  • Beans, vegetables, whole grains and fruit are
    good sources.

Diet and Cancer
  • Salt- some evidence links diets containing large
    amounts of foods preserved by pickling and
    salting to increased cancers of the stomach, nose
    and throat.

Diet and the Cancer Patient
  • Nutrition is an important part of treatment.
  • Eating the right kinds of food before, during and
    after treatment can help the patient feel better
    and stay stronger.
  • Treatments can have an affect on appetite.

Diet and the Cancer Patient
  • People with cancer have unique nutrition needs.
  • Eating enough food is usually not a problem.
    Treatment can have an adverse effect on appetite.
  • Nutrition suggestions often emphasize eating high
    calorie, high protein foods.

Diet and the Cancer Patient
  • Treatments kill cancer cells but they also kill
    healthy cells. This can cause side effects such
  • Loss of appetite, sore mouth or throat, dry
    mouth, dental and gum problems, changes in taste
    or smell, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue
    and depression.

Diet and the Cancer Patient
  • It is very important to have good nutrition to
    minimize the side effects of cancer, prevent or
    reverse nutritional deficiencies, and to maximize
    the quality of life.
  • The best method of calorie intake is by mouth.
    Sometimes this is not possible.

Diet and the Cancer Patient
  • Other options of intake are
  • Feeding Tube
  • TPN or total parenteral nutrition- this is
    nutrition directly through a vein.

Stop , Look, and Listen
  • Be aware of your body, this is the best
    prevention against cancer.
  • Early detection can be the difference between
    life and death!
  • Here are some things to look for early detection
    of the most common cancers.

Stop, Look, and Listen
  • Breast Cancer- look for a lump, any puckering,
    dimpling or scaling of the breast skin.
  • Colorectal Cancer- blood in the stool, prolonged
    diarrhea, or constipation.
  • Endometrial Cancer- (lining of the uterus)
    bleeding between periods or after menopause.

Stop, Look, and Listen
  • Cervical Cancer-Bleeding after intercourse, or
    between periods
  • Prostate- Frequent or painful urination, blood in
    the urine, difficulty starting and stopping.
  • Testicular Cancer- a change in the consistency of
    the testicles, or a small hard lump that is often

Stop, Look, and Listen
  • Oral Cancer- white or velvety red patches
  • Skin Cancer- Check body from head to toe, looking
    for new moles, or those that have suddenly
    increased in size, changed color, or bleed
  • Lung cancer- chest pain, recurring bronchitis, or

5 for the Road
  • Five things you should remember about preventing
  • Eats lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole
  • Discover the pleasure of physical activity.

5 for the Road
  • Stay tobacco free
  • Enjoy a low-fat diet
  • Protect yourself from the sun between 1000 am
    and 400 pm.

  • Cancer is a preventable disease in most cases.
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle.
  • Be aware of your body.
  • Great resource
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)