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Behavioral Biology

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Behavioral Biology Chapter 52 Biology Raven and Johnson 7th Ed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Behavioral Biology


1
Behavioral Biology
  • Chapter 52
  • Biology Raven and Johnson 7th Ed.

2
Outline
  • Behavioral Genetics
  • Learning
  • The Development of Behavior
  • Animal Cognition
  • Migratory Behavior
  • Courtship
  • Communication in Social Groups
  • Behavioral Ecology
  • Foraging Behavior
  • Territorial Behavior
  • Reproductive Strategies
  • Sexual Selection
  • Mating Systems
  • Altruism
  • Kin Selection
  • Social Systems

3
Approaches to the Study of Behavior
  • Behavior can be defined as the way an organism
    responds to stimuli in its environment.

4
Behavioral Genetics
  • Recent studies have shown identical human twins,
    separated at birth, develop many similarities,
    even though they were raised in very different
    environments.
  • Behavior may be controlled by one, or many, genes.

5
Learning Influences Behavior
  • Comparative psychologists focus on learning as
    the major element that shapes behavior.
  • nonassociative learning
  • Animal is not required to form association
    between a stimulus and a response.
  • examples
  • habituation - decrease in response to a repeated
    stimulus with no positive or negative
    consequences
  • sensitization - increased responsiveness to a
    stimulus

6
Learning
  • Associative learning
  • Association between two stimuli or between a
    stimulus and a response.
  • Classical conditioning - Paired presentation of
    two different stimuli creates an association
    between the stimuli (Pavlovian conditioning).
  • Operant conditioning - Animal learns to associate
    its behavioral response with a reward or
    punishment.
  • trial and error
  • Skinner Box- mice learn to push a lever to
    release food.
  • (They will push a lever to get cocaine and
    ignore food, sex, and play, until they die.)

7
Learning
  • Instinct
  • Investigations have shown some animals have
    innate predispositions toward forming certain
    associations.
  • Learning preparedness demonstrates that what an
    animal can learn is biologically influenced.
  • An animals ecology is key to understanding what
    an animal is capable of learning.

8
The Development of Behavior
  • Parent-offspring interactions
  • imprinting - social attachments to other
    individuals that will influence behavior later in
    life (Konrad Lorenz)
  • sensitive phase or critical period

9
Fig. 52.09
10
The Development of Behavior
  • Interaction between instinct and learning
  • Genetic templates may guide young birds to learn
    appropriate song.
  • During critical period, the template will accept
    the correct song as a model.
  • Template is selective, and leaning plays a role.

11
Animal Cognition
  • What does thinking mean?

12
Animal Cognition
  • Central question in animal behavior is whether
    animals show cognitive behavior.
  • Do they process information and respond in a
    manner that suggests thinking ?
  • Some examples are compelling
  • chimpanzees
  • ravens

13
Fig. 52.15
14
Orientation and Migration
  • Taxis - movement toward or away from a stimulus
  • positive (toward) and negative (away)
  • Kineses - increase in general activity level due
    to increased stimulus intensity
  • Migrations - long-range, two-way movements
  • monarch butterflies

15
Orientation and Migration
  • Navigation
  • navigation - ability to set or adjust a bearing
    and follow it
  • orientation - ability to follow a bearing
  • Inexperienced starlings appear to migrate by
    orientation, while older birds use true
    navigation.
  • magnetic field
  • celestial clues

16
Courtship
  • Stimulus - response chain in which behavior of
    one individual in turn releases behavior of
    another individual
  • Courtship signaling
  • Signals are often species-specific .
  • Reciprocal responses provide a continuous check
    on species identity.
  • Stickleback- see next slide

17
Stimulus-Response Chain
18
Courtship
  • Pheromones and acoustic signals
  • Pheromones are chemical messengers used for
    communication between individuals, and often
    serve as sex attractants. (in humans egg and
    spermthey are from two individuals, right?)
  • Silk moths are the most famous example.
  • Many insects, amphibians, and birds produce
    species-specific acoustic signals to attract
    mates.

19
Communication in Social Groups
  • Communicated information
  • alarm calls
  • alarm pheromones
  • trail pheromones
  • dance language
  • Waggle dance of European honeybee relays
    direction and distance of a located food source.
  • primate vocalizations

20
Waggle Dance of Honeybees
21
Behavioral Ecology
  • Behavioral ecology is the study of how natural
    selection shapes behavior.
  • examines adaptive significance and survival value
    of behavior
  • effect on fitness

22
Foraging Behavior
  • Optimal foraging theory - Natural selection
    favors individuals feeding on prey that maximize
    net energy intake efficiency.
  • two assumptions
  • Natural selection will only favor behavior
    maximizing energy acquisition if increased energy
    reserves lead to increases in reproductive
    success.
  • Optimal foraging has resulted from natural
    selection.

23
Territorial Behavior
  • Territoriality is behavior in which individual
    members of a species maintain exclusive use of an
    area containing a limited resource.
  • defense against intrusion
  • made on costbenefit basis centered around fitness

24
Competition for Space
6 birds species removed (R) were replaced by
existing species and by 4 new species (N).
25
Parental Investment and Mate Choice
  • Mate choice occurs when individuals do not mate
    at random, but appear to make decisions on mates
    base on quality.
  • common in females, usually they have a larger
    reproductive investment
  • Parental investment refers to contributions each
    sex makes in producing and rearing offspring.
  • usually higher in females
  • In mormon crickets, the male invests in a high
    energy sperm, and the males are more selective.

26
Reproductive Competition and Sexual Selection
  • Sexual selection occurs when individuals compete
    for mating opportunities.
  • involves both intrasexual and intersexual
    selection
  • leads to evolution of secondary sexual
    characteristics

27
Products of Sexual Selection
In many species, the boys dress up for the girls
)
a. African paradise whydah b. Peacock c.
Eyespots/ Mates
28
Reproductive Competition and Sexual Selection
  • Intrasexual selection
  • Individuals of one sex compete for the
    opportunity to mate with individuals of the other
    sex.
  • Selection will strongly favor sexual dimorphism.
  • sperm competition

29
Intersexual Selection
  • Intersexual selection
  • benefits of mate choice
  • Males may help rear young, gather food, defend
    nest, etc..
  • Indirect benefits
  • Females may choose healthiest or oldest males.
  • overall genetic or physiological health
  • more vigorous offspring

30
Intersexual Selection
  • Handicap hypothesis
  • Only genetically-superior males can survive with
    a handicap.
  • Sensory exploitation involves evolution in males
    of an attractive signal that exploits preexisting
    biases.

31
Mating Systems
  • Number of mates
  • monogamy - one male and one female
  • polygyny - one male and many females
  • polyandry - one female and several males
  • Needs of offspring
  • altricial - require extensive, prolonged care
    (ex. Humans)
  • precocial - require little parental care

32
Mating Systems
  • Extra-pair copulations -- (cheating)
  • Researchers found that in one study, 20 of
    red-winged blackbird offspring were a result of
    extra-pair copulations.
  • may be very pervasive
  • Males benefit by increased mating success.
  • Females may benefit by increased rearing
    assistance.

33
Factors Favoring Altruism and Group Learning
  • Altruism - performance of an action that benefits
    another individual at a cost to the actor (nest
    helpers)
  • Natural selection would seem to argue against
    altruism.
  • Such acts may not be truly altruistic, and may be
    benefiting the actor.
  • Nest helpers may gain parenting experience or
    inherit territory.

34
Factors Favoring Altruism and Group Learning
  • Reciprocity - Individuals may form partnerships
    in which mutual exchanges of altruistic acts
    occur. Ex Vampire bats will share blood with
    those who have shared with them in the past.
  • Kin selection - By directing aid toward close
    genetic relatives, an altruist may increase
    reproductive success of its relatives enough to
    compensate for the reduction in its own fitness.
  • The more closely related the individuals, the
    more likely the potential genetic gain.

35
Altruism
  • Hamiltons Rule- Altruistic acts (acts that
    benefit another member of the same species) are
    favored when rb gt c
  • r relatedness proportion of shared alleles
  • b benefit
  • c cost

36
Examples of Kin Selection
  • Beldings ground squirrel
  • sound alarm calls when spot predators
  • Females are more likely to call than males
    because colony is mostly her relatives.

37
Group Living - Evolution of Social Systems
  • Society - group of organisms of the same species
    organized in a cooperative manner
  • Insects
  • All ants, some bees, some wasps, and all termites
    are eusocial.
  • Eusocial colonies are composed of different
    castes of workers that differ in size and
    morphology and have different tasks to perform.

38
Vertebrate Societies
  • Vertebrate social groups are usually less rigidly
    organized and cohesive.
  • Some complex systems exhibit both reciprocity and
    kin-selected altruism.
  • also display higher levels of conflict and
    aggression among group members

39
Summary
  • Behavioral Genetics
  • Learning
  • The Development of Behavior
  • Animal Cognition
  • Migratory Behavior
  • Courtship
  • Communication in Social Groups
  • Behavioral Ecology
  • Foraging Behavior
  • Territorial Behavior
  • Reproductive Strategies
  • Sexual Selection
  • Mating Systems
  • Altruism
  • Kin Selection
  • Social Systems

40
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