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The Dawn Of Theatre

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Title: The Dawn Of Theatre


1
The Dawn Of Theatre
2
Audiences
  • There audiences were to be just the middle class
    people except if you were performing for the king
    then it was considered high class

3
Dawn of theatre ancient theatre
  • The dawn of theatre is divided into three
  • gt The Primitive People
  • gt The Egyptian Theatre
  • gt The Hebrew Theatre
  • The primitive period had No definite theatre or
    auditorium. This era was filled with lots of
    shamanism, rituals, dances and a lot of fireside
    storytelling and they had a SHAMAN who served as
    a representative of their god. Their dances are
    done to express the rhythm of life and to pacify
    the spirits in which they believed.

4
The Egyptian theatre
  • Theatre was set to have started between 2000-3000
    B.C.
  • Plays were sometimes written in HIEROGLYPHICS,
    and the plays were said to have been inspired by
    the plays on the pyramid walls. However, many
    were simply ceremonies past from generation to
    generation such as rites of passage, war dances,
    etc.
  • Plays were often written for important events
    such as coronations, so basically the audience
    was the whole community. The earliest form of
    dramatic production comes from the river Nile,
    made for IKHERNOFRET.
  • First recorded play Passion around 2000 B.C.

5
Hebrew theatre
  • The Hebrew theatre can be linked to
  • gtThe old Testament
  • gtThe book of JOB
  • gtThe songs of Solomon
  • One of the modern plays was written by Archibald
    MacLeish based on the Book of Job.
  • During this period the bible serves as a raw
    material for actions and characters. The Hebrew
    theatre are closely linked with Jewish national
    renaissance movement of the twentieth century.

6
Greek and Roman Theater
  • Roman is better!!!!

7
Greek
  • History
  • Ancient Greek civilization flourished during the
    8th to 6th centuries BC to 146 BC.
  • Alexander the Great was one of last rulers of
    Greek until it was taken control by the Romans
    after his deaths.
  • Many problems raised like who gets the power of
    the empire which made Greek Empire corrupted.
  • Many celebrations were thrown for Dionysus, the
    patron God of the Arts.

8
Famous Plays
  • AESCHYLUS -The Persians (472 BC)
  • Euripides- Rhesus, Medea, Herecles, Alcestis (450
    BC)
  • Sophocles-Ajax, Oedipus, Antigone (440 BC)
  • Aristophanes-The Frogs,The Birds (414 BC)
  • Actors were the play writers.

9
Thespis
  • Thespis was the first man to win a documented
    competition in theatre.
  • All Actors, or Thespians, are named after him

10
Theaters
  • Proscenium Stage
  • The plan of Greek theater has three major parts
    the Orchestra, the Scene and the main theatre,
    called Koilon.
  • The Greek theaters were performed with many types
    of plays like comedy, satiric drama, and tragedy.

11
(No Transcript)
12
Audience/Theme
  • The audience of the Greek times were very
    respectful to the actors and writers at the time.
  • In Greek Theater, the main themes were comedy and
    tragedy. Many plays had the Greek gods in the
    story.

13
Costuming
  • In Greek Theater, the costume was a very
    important factor of the production, because they
    could determine the characters by gender or
    class. For example the color of a chiton would
    determine rank.
  • Actors started to use masks so it can create a
    effect of personality. Few believe that the mask
    added resonance to the voice of an actor so that
    everyone in the huge ancient theater could hear
    him. It was also used to express emotion.

14
Roman
  • History
  • After the fall of the Greek empire through
    396-264BC, the Roman Empire took full control.
  • The Roman empire was split into two. The West
    Roman and East Roman.
  • The Western Roman fell very easily while the
    Eastern Roman flourished.

15
Famous Plays
  • Plautus-comedies
  • Rudens
  • Persa
  • Cansina
  • Braggart Warrior
  • The Casket and Pot of Gold
  • Terence-comedies
  • The Brother
  • The Mother-In-Law
  • Self-Tormentor
  • Most of the plays Found in Rome were copied or
    Stolen from the Greeks.

16
Famous Plays Cont
  • Seneca-tragedies
  • -The Trojan Women
  • -Medea
  • -Oedipus
  • -Phaedra
  • -Hercules on Oeta

17
Theaters
  • Mainly Proscenium stages and also arena stages as
    well. Many participants in the arena Coliseum
    were mainly criminals
  • The Theaters and stages were very similar to the
    Greek theater.
  • The main difference was the theaters started to
    be for Roman.
  • mainly entertainment Mainly men performed in most
    theatrical shows, but women could perform in
    pantomime shows. The most famous actor was Robert
    Gallus, Quintus who eventually had his face put
    on the currency coins for his achievements in
    acting
  • Music was involved in these plays. Many of the
    music were played on wind instruments. (Pipes,
    cornus, flutes, etc.)

18
Costuming
  • Masks were used to show expressions and emotions
    to the audience.
  • High silk cloths (Toga) were worn which were very
    expensive at their time.
  • Greeks wore chitons
  • While performing, Roman actors wore different
    colors on their robes to represent the role that
    actor was playing. Wearing a purple robe meant
    acting as a young man. Wearing a yellow robe
    meant acting as a young women. Wearing a yellow
    tassel meant acting as a god.

19
Roman vs. Greek
  • The Romans where more interested in comedy plays
    and however many found tragedies to be boring and
    too depressing for the stage.
  • When comparing and contrasting ancient Roman
    theatre to that of Greek theatre it can easily be
    said that Roman theatre was less influenced by
    religion. Also, Roman theatre was more for
    aesthetic appeal. In Roman theatre, war was a
    more common thing to appear on stage as opposed
    to the Greek theatre where the plays were mimed
    and repetitive.
  • The Romans loved war and many of their plays
    involved violence. On the other hand, the Greeks
    focused on Comedies and Tragedies.

20
Language
  • Most of the plays were written in Latin.

21
Chinese, Japanese, and Hindu
22
Chinese Theatre
  • Goes back to 722 BC.
  • They would have lavish festivals
  • Actors were known as children of the pear
    garden
  • There were 2,890 plays written during the Sung
    Dynasty
  • Only males were allowed to perform
  • They were called Shan
  • Costumes were elaborate and filtered into the
    dramatic spectacle.
  • They used few props to leave more room for
    dancing.
  • A famous play was The Fishermans Revenge.
  • One of the oldest forms of Chinese drama was
    Kunqu.
  • It was performed at regular theater, birthday
    parties, harvest festivals, and deities
    birthdays.
  • In China, acting was requested as a life study.
  • One of the elements they used to tell a story was
    an interpretative dance.
  • The symbols that they used 1.) White paper
    falling from an umbrella means snow.2.)An actor
    carrying a flag means army.
  • The language they performed in is the Chinese
    language.

23
Japanese
  • Started in the 12 and 13 century
  • The expression noh meant talent
  • The five types of plays were god, fighting, wig,
    madwomen, final or demon.
  • Kyogen were performed between plays.
  • In the Noh plays they used masks in the Kyogen
    Theatre they did not.
  • It derived from religious ceremony, now used for
    entertainment and to keep the culture alive.
  • Zeami was a famous playwright who wrote the
    famous play Matsukaze
  • Performed mainly by men.
  • Three main types Kabuki, Noh, and Bunraku.
  • The Kabuki Theatre was based on the Noh Theatre
    but they wanted to make it more real and shock
    the audience.
  • Kabuki means the art of song and dance.
  • Mostly done for entertainment, but also
    religious.
  • Bunraku used puppets instead of actors.
  • They used wooden puppets, most of them had three
    puppeteers.
  • Chimkamatu Monzaemon wrote, Sonezaki Shinju.
  • Many plays played around with the idea of loyalty
    over personal feelings.
  • The language they used to perform is the Japanese
    language.
  • Costumes As costumes they wore robes such as a
    Karaori, or a Surihaku. Men would wear something
    lika an Atsuita under a robe, normally a Kimono.

24
Hindu
  • The Hindu theatre began 1500 B.C but real theatre
    did not emerge until the 5th century B.C.
  • Kalidasa was best known for Plays
  • Sanskrit drama and poetry were among the Gupta
    empires artistic achievements
  • The 8 main rasas were love, heroism, loathing,
    anger, laughter, terror, pity and wonder.
  • Hindu theatre was expressed by singing, dancing,
    and poetry
  • India and Hindu theatre is one of the few
    countries which can boast of an indigenous drama,
    unaffected by any foreign influence.
  • Sanskrit is a literary language used and
    understood only by aristocrats.
  • The green room is where actors change and relax
    before and after performances.

25
Medieval Theatre
26
History
  • 480 A.D.- 1300 A.D.
  • The middle ages sprang into being wholly
    influenced by the drama of the Greeks
  • Medieval theatre involved many church plays such
    as, Mystery plays, Miracle plays, and Morality
    plays
  • The medieval theatre mainly revolved around
    religion

27
Plays
  • Morality plays would instruct man in what they
    should do. The great focus in these plays were
    death
  • Miracle plays widened its religious horizons and
    focused on religion outside the bible
  • Mystery plays were a joined effort by the
    community in which different guilds where
    assigned a portion of the Bible to act out

28
Languages
  • The main language of medieval times were old
    English some other people spoke Latin, Hebrew,
    Aramaic, Old Occitan, Greek, Arabic, Cornish, and
    welsh.

29
Playwriting
  • Clergy wrote the four-line playlets
  • Later the dialogue was expanded
  • As it became more elaborate, more playwrights
    were recruited
  • This opened the door for professional playwrights
  • Famous play wrights included Hrosvitha,
    Hildegard, The Wakefield Master ( his real name
    was unknown), John Bale, and Adam de la Halle

30
Acting and Rehearsing
  • Rehearsals took place over months
  • Held between dawn and beginning of the work day
  • Actors were fined for lateness, not knowing lines
    or being drunk
  • Multiple playlets were rehearsed at the same time

31
Actors
  • Some received fees
  • At first it was to reimburse the actors
  • Late 1600s began to see professional actors
  • Very few women performed in medieval plays
  • Only exceptions were for female Saints
  • There were two reasons male hierarchy and
    trained choir boys had better projection

32
Staging
  • Were performed on fixed or movable stages
  • The fixed stage was usually against buildings on
    one side of town square, or in an amphitheatre
  • The movable stages were wagons
  • Usually broken into three parts from left to
    right Hell, Earth, and Heaven
  • Nothing was depicted in its entirety. Very little
    illusion of a real place.
  • All stage production was temporary and expected
    to be removed upon the completion of the
    performances.

33
Street Pageants
  • When dignitaries would come to town they would
    set up stages all along the street
  • Clerks and children would then address them with
    songs and speeches
  • This provided a sense of civic pride

34
The Audience
  • Spectators came from surrounding towns and
    countryside all classes came
  • Posters were put up on city gates and invitations
    were sent out to neighboring towns
  • A trumpeter rode through town announcing the
    events
  • Work was forbidden during performance time
  • Most were free, however in some of Europe there
    was a fee

35
Costumes and Props
  • Two types of garments ecclesiastical robes and
    everyday clothes
  • Accessories such as wings were added
  • Props were used to identify characters i.e.
    sword, mirror, snakes etc..)
  • Heaven reps dressed to awe
  • Hell reps dressed to scare
  • Common humans dressed according to rank
  • Great detail went into designing the devil
  • Musical instruments included, the celtic harp,
    lute, and the rebec.

36
Festival Theatre
  • The church still had to approve
  • Between 1350-1500 Medieval theatre flourished
  • Clergy began to reduce its participation
  • Towns began to finance and produce the festivals
  • Producers oversaw everything, they got choirs,
    nobles loaned costumes, meals were prepared and
    lodging was provided. Laborers built the staging.
    Basically the whole community helped

37
Background
  • After the fall of Rome, and before the
    renaissance, the time is called Middle Ages.
  • A very active time as cathedrals were built, the
    crusades occurred, and kingdoms were divided and
    conquered
  • The foundations for modern languages were laid
    during this time

38
Background continued
  • The Church was extremely opposed to any other
    type of theatre due to the mimes. They still did
    exist though.
  • The Church developed its own dramatic ceremonies
    to combat the appeal of pagan rights
  • Pagans believed in multiple gods. (i.e.. The
    Ancient Greeks)

39
The York Cycle
  • Actors would get in costume and hop on wagons
  • Crowds were gather in the streets to watch them
    pass
  • The wagons would often have two levels to portray
    heaven and hell

40
MEDIEVAL THEATER
  • The middle ages was considered as the Dark Age
    for the lost in the arts or trading of ideas.
  • There are 3 types of medieval plays morality,
    miracle, mystery plays.
  • All of the plays consisted of spiritual
    enactments.
  • HEAVEN AND HELL WERE IN ALL PLAYS AND EVERY
    PLAY!!!!!!!

41
Medieval Theatre Costuming/Stages
Hair was always covered Garments were worn tight
to give skinny yet elegant waist line. Plays were
usually performed outside Plays were played in
cycles and were also acted out on the courtyards
of churches and also played on traveling pageant
wagons. No women were allowed to be part of these
religious reenactments.
42
The Renaissance
  • The Renaissance which is French for rebirth, took
    place from 1454 to the 1600s, and spread across
    several European countries. There were eight
    major countries that experienced the Renaissance.
    Due to many ideas and philosophies, the culture
    of the countries of France, Spain and Italy
    became more secularized.

43
Theatre/Stages
  • People began to use wings and canvas. The Italian
    began to use perspective with the illusion of
    depth, by angling scenery as well as theaters.
  • Italy also began using the Chariot and Pole
    system to move scenery.
  • Sebastino Serlio-Set guidelines for theatres and
    design by designing stages fir for three types of
    plays- tragedy, comedy, and dramatic.
  • One of the most famous theater was the Teatro
    Farnese. It was the first theatre built with a
    permanent proscenium arch.

44
Playwrights
  • Many famous playwrights emerged during this time.
    These were some of the most famous
    Moliere-French, Lope de Vega-Spanish, Lope de
    Rueda and Pierre Corneille.
  • The main writers merged from Italian playwrights.
    Most other writers were inspired from Italian
    writers.

45
Actor and actresses
  • The most famous actors and actresses were the
    following Moliere ( a middle class man),
    Madeline Bejart (a middle class woman), Lope de
    Rueda (a middle class man), and Shakespeare.

46
Costumes
  • Costumes at this time were extremely extravagant.
    They contained a lot of puffs, slashes, and
    frills.
  • Mask worn in Commedia Dellarte represented the
    characters personality.

47
Themes
  • The themes of the plays were primarily love,
    comedy, and entertainment. Religious themes began
    to decline, in some of the European countries.
  • Spanish Theatres main themes were adventure,
    romance, chivalry. Actually many Spanish plays
    were based on religion and that was the main
    theme of their plays.
  • French plays used the Black death as a history
    theme

48
Commedia Dellarte
  • It was a form of improvised comedy performed by
    professional actors who played the same
    characters every time. The comedy was conveyed
    through lazzi, or comedic interruptions in a
    play. There was no set script, but all the actors
    knew the plot, so entrances and exits were never
    missed. The actors made up the lines as they
    went along. Because of this, no 2 plays were the
    same. Moliere was the father of Commedia
    Dellarte.
  • There was seven men and three women that
    performed in Commedia Dellarte.
  • Italians biggest type of play
  • It is known an Comedy of the Masks in English.

49
Stock Characters
  • Are the professional actors of Commedia
    Dellarte. The name is due to the fact that they
    typically play the same character for their whole
    career. They were established characters such as
    young lovers, neighborhood busybodies, sneaky
    villains, witty servants, and overprotective
    fathers that are immediately recognizable by the
    audience. The characters were identified by the
    masks they wore.

50
Gender Roles
  • For the first time in Europe theaters, female
    actors began to emerge, though it was still
    uncommon.

51
Audience
  • Audiences during this time ranged from poor
    commoners to the wealthy elite, as well as men
    and women. The poor sat on the ground and wealthy
    sat up high in raised theatres. In flat theatres
    the wealthy sat up close and the poor sat in the
    back.

52
Languages
  • The plays of the Renaissance in France, Italy and
    Spain were performed in French, Spanish and
    Italian.

53
Opera
  • Is the form of theater in which the words of the
    script are sung.

54
Ballets
  • Ballets de cour- mix of dance and theatre. Most
    famous is Ballet comique de la reine the first
    ballet. 5 hours long centered around Greek
    goddess Circe, goddess of magic.
  • Began in France. The first ballet was made in
    France.

55
  • The
  • Elizabethan
  • Restoration
  • Era

56
Elizabethan Theatre
  • History
  • Elizabethan theatre started in 1558 and ended in
    1603. This era was named after Queen Elizabeth
    also referred to as the Golden Age. During this
    era, there was no freedom of thought or criticism
    of public affairs. Once Queen Elizabeth came into
    power, the arts flourished.

57
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Famous Playwrights and Plays
  • Shakespeare Thomas Kyd, John Lyly, Robert Greene,
    David Garrick, Ben Jonson, and Christopher
    Marlowe were the famous playwrights during this
    period.
  • Famous plays included
  • Hamlet
  • As you Like it
  • The Tempest
  • Doctor Faustus
  • Macbeth
  • Romeo and Juliet

58
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Famous theatres and stages
  • Hope Theatre
  • Rose Theatre
  • Swan Theatre
  • Globe Theatre
  • Bull Inn Theatre
  • The plays were always performed outside in Inn
    Yards.

59
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Audience
  • All classes watched theatre. The audience was
    very loud and boisterous. Especially the
    groundlings (poor people). Audience would express
    feelings about the plays by throwing things on
    the stage from flowers, which meant they liked
    it, to food, which means they didnt like they
    play.
  • Colored Flags were used to tell genre of the play
    -redhistory, whitecomedy, blacktragedy
  • Nobles paid 5 pennies for better, more
    comfortable seats
  • The commoners called groundlings or stinkards
    would stand in the theatre pit paying 1 penny

60
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Language
  • Plays during the Elizabethan period were spoken
    in Old English.
  • EX Though shalt abide in thy ways of the Lord.

61
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Famous Actors/Actresses.
  • No women were allowed to perform on stage, so the
    actors were always men.
  • Actors were
  • Richard Burbage.
  • Edward Alleyn.
  • Christopher Beesten.
  • Theophilus Bird
  • William Shakespeare

62
Elizabethan Theatre
  • The theatre was a source of entertainment.
  • Themes Included
  • Religion
  • Social status
  • The main religion of this time was Catholic.

63
Elizabethan Theatre cont.
  • Costuming
  • The clothing was very elaborate, the costumes
    consisted of
  • Wisk Standing fan like collar.
  • Copotain Bell shaped hat.
  • Hoop skirts.
  • Balloon pants.
  • The amount of clothing worn showed a persons
    wealth.

64
19th Century Theatre
  • 1801-1900

65
History
  • The Civil War took place between 1861-1865. It
    closed down many theatres for the first year, and
    it also limited touring. But after the war, the
    theatre industry rapidly grew, especially in the
    north and west.
  • It was also an era of invention and discovery
    which laid the groundwork for the technological
    advances.
  • Also known as The Victorian Age, theatre at the
    time was influenced by such things as inequality
    towards women, slavery
  • In Europe however, the birth of Romanticism had a
    great deal of impact in theatre. Originating in
    Germany, it spread throughout the rest of Europe.
  • The invention of railroads, telegraph, telephone,
    improved on rapid transportation, and the
    invention of the light bulb.

66
Famous Plays and Playwrights
  • The two most famous playwrights were Henrik Ibsen
    and Anton Chekov.
  • One famous play was A Dolls House which was
    written by Henrik Ibsen.
  • The Importance of Being Ernest- Oscar Wilde
  • Miss Julie- August Strindberg
  • Cyrano De Bergerac- Edmond Rostand (Also created
    romantic and comedic plays).

67
Actors/Actresses
  • There were male and female actors.
  • Many of them came from came from theatrical
    families and backgrounds, and got their start in
    theatre as children.
  • Famous actors where Joseph Jefferson, Coquelin
    Edwin Booth
  • Famous actress was Sarah Bernhard

68
Famous Theatres/Stages
  • The most famous theatre was the Moscow Art
    Theatre, which was located in Moscow and was made
    as a location for naturalistic theatre
  • The Ritz Theatre, The Moscow Arts Theatre, and
    the arrival of the cinema.
  • The theatres of the time period where very
    special and well decorated. With the finest
    drapes and wall décor. The stage was a proscenium
    stage with seats in the front and sides.

69
Audience
  • The crowd during the first half of the century
    were unruly, loud and uncouth. By the end of the
    century though crowds became quieter, more
    genteel, and less prone to cause disruptions of
    the performance.
  • To be in these theatres you had to be very well
    dressed and well mannered. Only the wealthiest
    sat on the sides or also called box seats. The
    rest sat on the bottom seats

70
Costumes
  • Women usually wore chemises , corsets, and
    petticoats underneath either a walking dress or a
    hoop skirt.
  • Men usually wore formal pants with a white shirt,
    a vest, a coat, and a top hat.

71
Themes
  • Realism-Literary term that identifies an authors
    attempt to portray characters, events, and
    setting in a realistic way.
  • Naturalism Literary movement which is the
    application of the scientific principles to
    literature.
  • Romanticism -A movement in literature and the
    fine arts that stressed personal emotion, free
    play of the imagination, and freedom from rules
    of form.
  • Comedy
  • Minstrel
  • Dramatic

72
Language
  • The plays were performed in
  • English
  • Spanish
  • French.
  • English was modern, but slightly different.
  • German
  • Italian
  • (Other European countries)

73
20th Century Theatre1900-1999
74
Evolution of Electricity
  • Before the evolution of electricity candles were
    used for light
  • Then came the Floating oil wick lamp but it was
    too inefficient because they would always flicker
    randomly and too expensive
  • First Spot lamp was called the Limelight,
    created by Thomas Drummond. It was more natural
    looking and could use spot lights and control the
    lights.
  • First theatre to use an electrical lighting
    system was the Savoy Theatre in London, England.

75
Theatre of the Absurd
  • Started in 1962
  • Five major playwrights of the Theatre of the
    Absurd are..
  • Eudene Lonesco
  • Samuel Beckett
  • Jean Genet
  • Arthur Adamov
  • Harold Pinter
  • Movement produced some of the most exciting and
    original dramatic works of the 20th Century

76
Themes
  • Symbolism- The belief that art should aim to
    capture more absolute truths which could only be
    accessed by indirect methods.
  • Expressionism- It started out in poetry and
    painting at the start of the century. Its typical
    trait is to present the world under an utterly
    subjective perspective, greatly distorting it to
    obtain an emotional effect and expressing
    personal moods and ideas in depth and clarity.

77
Themes cont.
  • Surrealism- Surrealist Theatre shows the hidden
    experience, moody tone and unorganized structure,
    sometimes bringing together an idea. Basically
    the ideas from a dream.

78
Costumes
  • Women's typical style was flat bosom, unfitted
    waist, and belt placed at the hip. Modern day
    clothing.
  • Men wore business suits, vest, jackets, and
    trousers.
  • Famous designers of this time period were Ralph
    Lauren and Donna Karon.

79
Plays and Playwrights
  • Samuel Beckett
  • Tennessee Williams
  • Lillian Hellmann
  • Samuel Beckett wrote the play Waiting for Godot.
  • August Wilson, Sam Shepperd, Nail Simon, Landford
    Wilson, Paul Zindel, Pete Shaffer and Tom
    Stoppard.

80
Broadway
  • Broadway was one of the most important things of
    the 20th century!
  • The two most famous Broadway shows were,
    Steamboat and Oklahoma!
  • Two big Broadway show that made Disney big was
    Beauty and the Beast and the Lion King.
  • Broadway was a wide range of movements and
    singing.

81
WW2
  • During this time plays were used to entertain
    soldiers in camps.
  • Most theaters were made of makeshift tents that
    50 to 100 soldiers could fit in.
  • Most times soldiers were the actors in these
    plays.

82
Vietnam
  • Vietnam was very important to theater because it
    mainly gave world renowned plays that hadn't been
    seen in some parts of the world.
  • Plays from Vietnam that hadn't been seen by there
    world were seen by few soldiers

83
Important Facts
  • Epic Theatre was from 1920-1930.
  • Because of WWI and WWII a lot of theatres had to
    close.
  • The Great Strike started in 1926.
  • Theatres before war mostly had a good and clean
    ending.
  • The Epic Theatre was the most advanced type of
    theatre and introduced animation.

84
Important Facts Continued
  • Theatres became more of an improvised stage
    because props and materials were hard to buy, it
    was also part of a theatre movement and to go
    against war.
  • Theaters also closed in 1942 for inline cinemas
    that used recorded films rather than people

85
21st Century
86
History
  • There are many events that happened during the
    20th/21st century. The Holocaust was the mass
    murder of over a million Jews that started around
    1941. On December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor was
    invaded by the Japanese. World War 1 and 2 were
    two very major wars during the 20th century.
    September 11, 2001 was the tragic attack of the
    twin towers located in New York City, There were
    many other events, like the invention of the
    airplane, the Persian Gulf War, The Cold War, The
    Great Depression and many more.

87
Important Themes
  • Many plays you see today reflect the events that
    have happened in the past 100 or so years. Like
    The Holocaust, WWII, and The Attack of Pearl
    Harbor. A lot of the plays you see also have
    themes that represent how life is today and has
    been during the last 100 years, like segregation,
    racism, and poverty.

88
Important Facts
  • Costuming- Costuming during this time period
    usually matched the plays theme. Per say if the
    play were over the Holocaust you would probably
    see German soldiers uniforms, dresses, and suits.
    It all depends on the time period of the play.
  • Stages- The most common stage type you see today
    is the proscenium stage. A couple other types are
    the arena, ex. Houston Arena Theatre, and the
    thrust.
  • Famous Playwrights- The Lion King, The Diary of
    Anne Frank, Peter Pan, High School Musical, The
    Nutcracker, and Hamlet are a few of the famous
    playwrights being performed today.
  • Actors/Actress's- Burny Mattison, Ice Cube, Tom
    Sito, Noni White, Megan Fox, Vanessa Hudgens,
    Denzel Washington, Will Smith,Johnny Depp,
    Phylicia Rahshad, Tom Hanks, Matt Damon, Tom
    Cruise, Angelina Jolie.
  • Language- English and others depending on where
    the plays are preformed.

89
Important Facts
  • Audience- Everyone of all classes attended the
    theatre.
  • Economy- Since the economy is bad it caused some
    people not to want to attend theatre. But lately
    there has been a pick up in the number of people
    attending the theatre.
  • Movies- A trend that started to occur during this
    time period has been turning musicals and plays
    into blockbuster movies and vise versa. (ex.
    Shrek, Lion King, Hairspray, Rent, Raisin in the
    sun, and the color purple)

90
Black Theatre
  • Black Broadway picked up around the 1960s. And
    has continued to progress even in todays world.
  • It started off politically and as time progressed
    it became more for entertainment.

91
The raisin in the sun
  • A raisin in the sun was the first black play
    written by an African American woman Lorraine
    Hansberry to be produced on Broadway, It
    premiered in 1959. In February 2008 it was on
    television on ABC, with Sean Diddy combs,Audra
    McDonald,phylicia Rashad,and Sanaa Lathan.

92
  • The raisin in the sun the story of a family
    living and struggling on Chicago's South Side in
    the 1950s. It is a fiercely moving portrait of
    people whose hopes and dreams are constantly
    deferred. The Washington Post hails it as one of
    a handful of great American plays it belongs in
    the inner circle, along with Death of a Salesman,
    Long Day's Journey Into Night and The Glass
    Menagerie.

93
The world train center
  • When they debuted in 1973, the two glistening
    110-story towers of New York City's World Trade
    Center (WTC), 1,362 and 1,368 ft high, were more
    than 100 ft taller than the city's other world
    height record holderthe Empire State Building.
    Their size was the subject of a joke during the
    press conference to unveil the landmarks. WTC
    architect Minoru Yamasaki was asked "Why two
    110-story buildings? Why not one 220-story
    building?" His tongue-in-cheek answer "I didn't
    want to lose the human scale.
  • The World Trade Center Twin Towers collapsed
    after 2 planes crashed against them on September
    11th, 2001, during a terrorist attack that caused
    the deaths of more than 5000 people.
  • In 2006 the world trade center became a movie
    with Nicholas cage
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