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Insects

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Title: Insects Author: Vicki Peplin Last modified by: MAROONVICTORIA Created Date: 4/4/2006 1:20:26 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Insects


1
Insects
  • Chapter 37

2
The Insect World
  • Section 37.1

3
Characteristics of Insects
  • Three tagmata
  • Head mandibles to chew, pair of antennae for
    sensory
  • Thorax 3 pairs of jointed legs, most have 1 or 2
    pairs of wings
  • Abdomen 9-11 segments

4
Head
Thorax
Abdomen
5
Exoskeleton with
  • Antennae Examples
  • Leg Examples

6
Appendage examples
7
Two types of mouthparts
Sucking
Chewing
8
Entomology
  • The study of insects
  • other terrestrial arthropods
  • Person entomologist
  • Classify insects into 25 orders based up
  • Mouthparts
  • Number of wings
  • Type of development

9
Classification of Insects
  • Subphylum Hexapoda
  • Class Insecta
  • Common Orders
  • Hemiptera
  • Homoptera
  • Isoptera
  • Odonata
  • Orthoptera
  • Coleoptera
  • Diptera
  • Hymenoptera
  • Lepidoptera

Table on page 743
10
Success of Insects
  • Insects live everywhere (except deep ocean)
  • 1 million species (more than 3x all other
    animals!)
  • 10 million might exist
  • Why so many?
  • Ability to fly
  • Escape dispersal
  • Small
  • Short life spans
  • Quick adaptations

11
Insects and People
  • Competition for food ?
  • Spread diseases ?
  • Plague, typhoid fever, malaria
  • Consume clothing carpet ?
  • Crop pollination ?
  • Make commercial products ?
  • Wax, silk, honey
  • Recycle nutrients ?

Video
12
Insect Development
  • Hatchling must go through several molts to reach
    adulthood (sexual maturity)
  • Metamorphosis major developmental changes from
    larvae to adult
  • Two forms incomplete complete

13
Incomplete Metamorphosis
  • Nymph immature form of insect that looks like
    adult
  • Only the adult can fly and is sexually mature

14
Complete Metamorphosis
  • Two stages of development that look drastically
    different
  • Pupa changing from larvae to adult
  • Cocoon protective covering of pupa
  • Chrysalis butterfly pupa protection

15
Insect Defense
  • Passive defense examples
  • Camouflage
  • Look like plants
  • Aggressive defense examples
  • Venomous stingers
  • Harmful chemicals
  • Warning coloration color pattern to warn of
    poison

16
Mimicry
  • Mullerian mimicry poisonous species mimics the
    coloration of another poisonous species
  • Bees wasps
  • Batesian mimicry harmless species mimics the
    coloration of a poisonous species
  • Monarch viceroy butterflies

17
Grasshoppers
  • Subphylum Hexapoda

18
External Structures
  • Head mouthparts, antennae, simple compound
    eyes
  • Thorax 3 parts
  • Prothorax 1st pair walking legs
  • Mesothorax 2nd pair walking legs forewings
    (protective)
  • Metathorax 3rd pair legs (jumping) hindwings
    (flying)

19
  • Abdomen upper lower plates connected by
    flexible exoskeleton
  • Covered by waxy cuticle (prevents desiccation)

20
Feeding
  • Chewing mouthparts (feed on plants)
  • Labrum functions like upper lip
  • Labium functions like lower lip
  • Mandible tears food
  • Maxilla helps hold cut food

Video
21
Digestive Tract
  • Mouth ? saliva (from salivary glands) ? esophagus
    ? crop (storage) ? gizzard ? midgut/stomach
    (bathed in enzymes from gastic ceca) ? nutrients
    absorbed in hindgut/intestine ? anus

22
Circulation, Respiration, Excretion
  • Circulatory system
  • Open
  • Aorta (large, dorsal vessel)
  • Heart (pumping organ)
  • Respiratory system
  • Tracheae (site of air diffusion inside body)
  • Spiracles (openings to allow air in/out)
  • Excretory system
  • Malpighian tubules return most water back to
    hemolymph, rest leaves body via feces

23
Neural Control
  • CNS brain, ventral nerve cord, ganglia at
    each segment
  • Antennae touch smell
  • 3 simple eyes intensity of light
  • 2 compound eyes sight
  • Tympanum sound communication
  • Sensory hairs - touch

24
Reproduction
  • Separate sexes (male female)
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • male deposits sperm into female seminal
    receptacles
  • Eggs released from ovaries
  • Internal fertilization
  • Ovipositor digs a hole in soil to lay eggs

25
(No Transcript)
26
Insect Behavior
  • Section 37.2

27
Communication
  • Chemical communication via pheromones
  • Chemical released that affects behavior or
    development of other members of same species
  • Uses of pheromones
  • Attract mates
  • Identify hives
  • Food trails

video
28
Communication Cont
  • Sound communication via chirping, buzzing, etc.
    (crickets, mosquitoes)
  • Attract females
  • Protect territories
  • Sight communication via flashes of light
    (fireflies)
  • Find mates

29
Behavior in Honeybees
  • Social insects insects that live in colonies
    with division of labor
  • Innate behaviors genetically determined
  • Not taught or learned
  • Three types of honeybees
  • Worker
  • Drone
  • Queen

30
Worker Bees
  • Sterile females
  • First adult week feed honey pollen to queen,
    drones, larvae
  • Royal jelly
  • Next two weeks secrete wax (build repair
    honeycomb), remove wastes, guard hive, circulate
    air in hive

31
Continued
  • Last weeks of life collect nectar pollen
  • Adaptations
  • Barbed stingers for protection of hive
  • Mouthparts for lapping nectar
  • Legs with pollen packers, baskets, pollen combs

32
Drones
  • Males developed from unfertilized eggs
  • Parthenogenesis
  • Can travel from hive to hive
  • Sole function deliver sperm to queen
  • succeed in mating death
  • penis and associated abdominal tissues are ripped
    from the body at intercourse

33
Queen Bee
  • Continuous diet of royal jelly as larvae queen
    bee
  • Secretes pheromone queen factor that prevents
    other females developing into queens
  • Sole role reproduction
  • Mates only once
  • Sperm remains inside her for 5 years
  • Lays millions of eggs per year!

Video
34
The Dances of the Bees
  • Dancing performed by scout worker bees
  • Round dance told workers that food was nearby
    but not exact location
  • Waggle dance told workers that food was far away
    and told location

Round
Waggle
35
Altruistic Behavior
  • Definition aiding other individuals at ones own
    risk or expense
  • Kin selection increasing the propagation of
    ones own genes by helping closely related
    individuals reproduce
  • Example worker bee stinging death

Video
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