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Chapter 4: Section 1: Inside the Earth

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Chapter 4: Section 1: Inside the Earth Description-When molten rock erupts into the Earths surface, magma pushes the surface of the Earth upwards Volcanic Mountains ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Section 1: Inside the Earth


1
Chapter 4 Section 1 Inside the Earth
2
  • The Earth is made of different layers which are
    described by their Composition and Physical
    properties

3
Composition
  • The Earth is divided into
  • 3 main layers
  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Core

4
The Crust
  • The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth
    with a thickness of 5 to 100 km

5
2 Types of Crust
  1. Continental crust - land bodies, usually 30 km
    thick! (Mostly granite)
  2. Oceanic crust - bottom of water bodies, 5-8 km
    thick. (Mostly basalt)

6
Two types of crust
7
The Mantle
  • thickness of 2,900 km.
  • It is so deep that no one has ever seen what it
    looks like.
  • Contains most of the Earths mass

8
The Core
Is the center of the Earth and is made of Iron
with smaller amounts of Sulfur, Aluminum and
Magnesium, and silicon and oxygen
9
  • Physical Properties
  • of Earths Layers

10
  • Based upon structure, there are 5 physical
    layers
  • ) Lithosphere
  • ) Asthenosphere
  • ) Mesosphere
  • ) Outer core
  • ) Inner core

11
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12
1.) The Lithosphere
  • Outermost layer
  • made up of the crust and the rigid upper part of
    the mantle.
  • Divided into pieces called tectonic plates.

13
2.) The Asthenosphere
  • This is the soft layer of the mantle on which
    pieces of the lithosphere move.

14
3.) Mesosphere
  • Lower part of the mantle

15
4.) The Outer Core
  • Outer liquid layer of the core

16
5. Inner Core
  • Solid inner layer of the core

17
Tectonic Plates
  • Pieces of the lithosphere that move around on the
    asthenosphere.
  • Made of continental crust, oceanic crust or both

18
Depths of the Earth
  • Scientists cannot visit the depths of the Earth
    like the mantle and the core but use seismic
    waves recorded during earthquake activity.

19
Seismic Waves
  • The device that measures seismic waves is a
    seismograph.

20
Section 1 Recap Questions
  • What are the 3 main layers of the Earth?
  • Crust, Mantle, Core
  • What are the 2 components of the crust?
    Continental and Oceanic
  • What is the largest layer of Earth?
  • The Mantle
  • According to their characteristics, what are the
    5 layers Earth can be broken into?
  • Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, Outer
    core, Inner core

21
Alfred Wegener 1911
Developed a Theory called the Theory of Plate
Tectonics which states that the Earths
lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that
move around on top of the asthenosphere. The
continents once formed a single landmass, broke
up, and drifted to their present locations
22
Wegeners Theory explains some observations
  1.  The continents seem to fit together

23
  • 2. Fossils of the same plant and animal species
    are found on continents that are on different
    sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

24
  • 3. Similar types of rock were found on several
    continents.

25
  • 4. Evidence of the same ancient climatic
    conditions were found on several continents.

26
  • Wegener proposed that all of the separate
    continents that we see today were once connected
    in a giant landmass called Pangaea which broke up
    about 180 M years ago and formed 2 big pieces
    called Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Then, about 65
    MYA, these broke up and formed the continents
    that we know today.

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33
Sea Floor Spreading
  • As the tectonic plates move away from each other,
    the sea floor spreads apart and magma fills in
    the gap.

34
Sea floor spreading is proven by the ages of the
rocks
  • As this new crust forms, the older crust gets
    pushed away from the mid-ocean ridge.
  • The older crust is farther away from the
    mid-ocean ridge than the younger crust is.

35
Magnetic Reversal
  • Throughout Earths history, the north and south
    magnetic poles have changed places many times.

36
How does Magnetic Reversal Prove Sea Floor
Spreading?
37
Plate Tectonics
Theory of Plate Tectonics states that the Earths
lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that
move around on top of the asthenosphere. The
continents once formed a single landmass, broke
up, and drifted to their present locations
38
Boundary
  • Boundary - is a place where tectonic plates
    touch.
  • 3 types of boundaries (depending on how the
    plates are moving relative to one another)
  • 1.) Convergent
  • 2.) Divergent
  • 3.) Transform

39
Convergent Boundary
  • Type of Crust ? O-O, C-C, or O-C
  • Type of Movement - 2 plates move together often,
    1 oceanic plate moves under another oceanic or
    continental plate in a process called subduction
  • Arrows - ??

40
Divergent Boundaries
  • Type of Crust ? O-O or C-C
  • Type of Movement - 2 plates move apart
  • Arrows -??

41
Stress
  • Stress is the amount of force that is applied on
    a given material.

42
  • Deformation - when rock changes shape due to
    stress

43
Pd 2 starts here
44
  • There are two main types of stress that can act
    on a rock.
  • Compression
  • Tension

45
Compression
  • Motion that Occurs
  • Rock is squeezed will fold
  • What type of boundary?
  • Convergent

46
Tension
  • Motion that Occurs
  • Rock is stretched and can break
  • What type of boundary?
  • Divergent

47
Folding
  • Folding occurs when rock layers bend due to
    stress in the Earths crust.

48
  • 3 Types of folding
  • Anticline
  • Syncline
  • Monocline

49
Anticline
  • Description rock folds downward (like a hill)
  • Picture

50
Syncline
Description rock folds upwards (like a
u) Picture
51
Monocline
Description layers of rock are stacked but
remain horizontal. Picture
52
Pd 1, 9 starts here
53
Fault
  • A crack in the Earths crust along which rocks
    move.

54
Fault Blocks
  • The blocks of crust on either side of the fault

55
  • If a fault is cut diagonally, it usually has two
    specific sides.
  • a)Hanging wall the upper side of the cut, the
    upper portion sticks out.
  • b)Footwall the lower side of the cut, the bottom
    portion sticks out

56
Hanging wall Footwall
Hanging Wall
Footwall
57
3 Types of Faults
  1. Normal
  2. Reverse
  3. Strike-slip

58
Pd 7,8 starts here
59
Normal Faults
  • Description Stress at a divergent boundary pulls
    Hanging wall down relative to the footwall
  • Picture

60
Reverse Fault
  • Description Compression pushes Hanging wall
    moves up relative to the footwall at a convergent
    boundary
  • Picture

61
Strike-Slip Fault
  • Description Rock breaks moves horizontally
    (transform boundary)
  • Picture

62
  • Mountains
  • Mountains are formed when tectonic plates undergo
    compression or tension.

63
3 Types of Mountains
  1. Folded
  2. Fault-block
  3. volcanic

64
Folded mountains
  • Description Rock layers are squeezed together
    pushed upwards

65
Fault-Block Mountains
  • Description when there is enough tension, a
    large number of normal faults can result.
    Mountains are tilted upwards by faulting will
    have sharp, jagged peaks.

66
Volcanic Mountains
  • Description-When molten rock erupts into the
    Earths surface, magma pushes the surface of the
    Earth upwards
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