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Earth Science

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Earth Science Objectives: Seismic Activity Map Assignment Identify, compare, and model earth s layers. Identify and examine historical evidence of plate tectonics. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Science


1
Earth Science
  • Objectives
  • Seismic Activity Map Assignment
  • Identify, compare, and model earths layers.
  • Identify and examine historical evidence of plate
    tectonics.
  • Identify, compare, and model plate boundaries.

2
Plate Tectonics
3
Plate Tectonic Vocabulary
  • Continental drift
  • Continental Crust
  • Convection
  • Convection Current
  • Convergent Boundary
  • Divergent Boundary
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge
  • Ocean Trench
  • Pangaea
  • Plate Tectonics
  • Seafloor Spreading
  • Subduction Zone
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge

4
Crust
  • a. What are the two types of crust?
  • b. Each type of crust is composed of what kind
    of rock?
  • c. Which type of crust is denser?

5
Shorelines are not true boundaries
  • Continental margin
  • where the ocean water
  • covers the continental
  • crust
  • Deep ocean basin-
  • where the ocean water
  • covers oceanic crust

water
Continental margin
Oceanic basin
Continental crust
Oceanic crust
  • The ocean water may cover miles of the
    continental crust

6
Earths Tectonic Plates
dpc.ucar.edu
7
Crust
  • The crust is broken into separate plates.
  • How many plates are there?
  • T or F Plates are stationary.

8
Plate Movement
  • What causes plates to move?
  • As the plates move, everything on them moves
    along with them.
  • Examples
  • The North American plate moves west at a rate of
    4 cm per year (1.6 in./yr)
  • The Pacific Ocean plate moves northward at the
    same rate.

9
Plate Movement
  • Convection currents produced in the mantle cause
    the plates to move.
  • As the plates move, everything on them moves
    along with them.
  • Examples
  • The North American plate moves west at a rate of
    4 cm per year (1.6 in./yr)
  • The Pacific Ocean plate moves northward at the
    same rate.

10
  • PLATE TECTONICS
  • The continental oceanic plates on the earths
    surface are constantly moving.
  • Many geologists believe that at one time all
    landmasses were together supercontinent.
  • Also called?

11
Pangaea
12
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13
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14
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15
uni-graz.at
  • Alfred Wegener
  • He was a leading scientist in providing
  • evidence that continents were moving.
  • CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY
  • Continents are drifting or moving.
  • Break-up of Pangaea occurred around 240 million
    yrs ago
  • Over time continents broke up into smaller
    pieces and have drifted to their current location
  • The continents are currently still moving

16
Alfred Wegener Continental Drift
Evidence Evidence 1. Similarities in
coastlines 2. Similarities in fossil records 3.
Similarities in rock
17
  • Continental Drift Evidence
  • 180 million years ago, Pangaea began to break up
    into separate continents.
  • Provided evidence of ancient animal and plant
    remains from South America, Africa, India, and
    Australia that were very similar.

18
Wegeners Continental Drift Theory
  • What problem or concern do you think other
    geologist had with Wegners theory?
  • Could not provide direct evidence that the
    continents were moving.

19
Continental Drift Theory Conclusive Evidence
  • Where? Under the Atlantic Ocean
  • What? Mountain Range
  • Mid Atlantic Ridge
  • the ridge looks like a mountain with a valley
    running down the center
  • Who? Harry Hess

velikovsky.info
20
Aerial picture of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
21
Harry Hess Important Observations
  • Studied rock data from the Mid Atlantic Ridge
  • Found in the center of the ridge is a crack or
    rift.
  • Magma would flow up through this rift

22
  • Harry Hess Conclusion
  • The ocean floor was moving away from the ridge on
    both sides.
  • As it moved away, it was replaced by rising magma
    that cooled and solidified into new rock.
  • He called this process Sea Floor Spreading

23
Sea Floor Spreading
Thingvellir, the spreading zone in Iceland
between the North American (left side) and
Eurasian (right side) tectonic plates. January
2003.
24
  • Hess Later Observations and Conclusions
  • Continued to support sea floor spreading.
  • Evidence by further studying the structure,
    properties, and age of the rock around the
    Mid-Atlantic ridge.

25
Scientific Evidence is Dynamic
  • Scientific evidence presented to the public is
    only established after years of sound research in
    the hands of many scientists. Despite this truth,
    scientists continue to test these facts as
    technology advances.
  • Homework Read and annotate the article UCLA
    scientist discovers plate tectonics on Mars.
    Explain with three supporting facts from this
    article why the statement above is necessary for
    science to remain beneficial to humanity.

26
Bell Ringer Plate Tectonics
  • 1. Identify the 4 layers of the earth and what
    state of matter (solid or liquid) they are in.
  • 2. Which layer(s) is/are responsible for the
    magnetic field around the earth. Explain your
    answer.
  • 3. What is plate tectonics?
  • 4. What indirect evidence did Wegener have to
    hypothesize his continental drift theory?
  • 5.What direct evidence did Hess have to conclude
    from his research seafloor spreading?
  • 6. What causes plates to move?

27
Plate Boundaries
  • Plate boundaries are where two plates meet.
  • What type of plates can meet?
  • There are 3 types of plate boundaries
  • 1. divergent boundaries
  • 2. convergent boundaries
  • 3. transform boundaries

28
Earths Tectonic Plates
dpc.ucar.edu
29
Divergent Boundaries
What are divergent boundaries?
30
Divergent Boundaries
  • Iceland is along a divergent boundary.
  • The North American Plate the Eurasian Plate

31
Thingvellier,Iceland
32
Divergent Boundaries
Mid-Atlantic Ridge Extends from the Arctic Ocean
to beyond the southern tip of Africa moves
2.5cm per year.
33
Divergent Boundaries
African Rift Valley east African Plate is
spreading has torn Saudi Arabia away from the
rest of the African continent forming the Red Sea
34
Convergent Boundaries
  • What is a convergent boundary?

35
Convergent Boundaries
There are three types of convergent boundaries?
1. Oceanic-oceanic
2. oceanic-continental
3. continental-continental
nature.nps.gov
36
Convergent Boundaries Continental
Convergence
  • Continental convergence form mountain ranges
  • Example Himalayan Mountains formed by the
    convergence of the Indian and Eurasian Plates.

nature.nps.gov
nature.nps.gov
37
Himalayan Mountain Range
destination360.com
geography.howstuffworks.com
38
  • Convergence Boundaries
  • Continental and Oceanic Convergence
  • Create trenches and volcanic mountains
  • One crust subducts under another.

39
Aleutian Islands
  • Pacific Plate North American Plate form the
    Aleutian Islands in the Pacific Ocean off the
    northeast coast of Siberia

40
Andes Mountains
Nazca Plate South American Plate form the Andes
Mountains on the western border of the South
American continent
geo1202peru.blogspot.com
41
  • Convergent Boundaries
  • Oceanic Convergence
  • Creates trenches, volcanic islands, and
    volcanic island arcs
  • Subduction zone

42
Mariana Trench
  • Located in the Pacific Ocean near Japan.
  • Created by ocean-to-ocean subduction.
    -Phillipine Plate is subducting under the
    Pacific Plate

43
Transform Boundaries
What is a transform boundary?
44
Transform Boundaries
Create Earthquakes

The Pacific Plate and the North American Plate
slide past each other.
San Andreas Fault By Robert E. Wallace, USGS
45
Plate Tectonics
  • Homework due Wednesday
  • Complete sea floor spreading questions.
  • Complete questions from plate tectonic worksheet.
  • Continue to record seismic activity.
  • Heads-Up
  • Quiz tomorrow over Earths Layers/Plate Tectonics
  • Test on Monday Earths Layers and Plate
    Tectonics

46
Sea Floor Spreading Model
  • Use the picture below to help understand the sea
    floor
  • spreading model you made last week.
  • What kind of boundary is represented at 1?
    (slit?)
  • What kind of boundary is represented at 2?
    (slit?)

1.
2.
47
Plate Tectonics
  • Objectives
  • Sea Floor Spreading Model qts. due
  • Plate Tectonic Map qts.
  • Impacts of Plate Tectonics (video/text)
  • Plate Tectonic Gallery Walk
  • Plate Tectonics on Mars article
  • Study Guide

48
What does Plate Tectonics Impact?
  • Read pg. 257 and record in your notes the
    following
  • What is effected by plate tectonics?
  • How is it effected by plate tectonics?
  • Why is it effected by plate tectonics?

49
Plate Tectonics
  • How does it affect climate?
  • Changed the climate over the last 250 million
    years by constantly creating geological processes
    (volcanoesearthquakes) that produced heat and
    chemicals in the atmosphere that would promote
    and support life. Climate keeps most water from
    freezing.
  • How does it affect life?
  • Plate tectonics promotes diversity among animals
    by causing isolation due to geographical
    formations (mountains).

50
Plate Tectonics on Mars
  • Annotate and write a descriptive summary about
    the article, UCLA scientist discovers plate
    tectonics on Mars.
  • Due

51
Earth Science
  • Homework
  • Plate Tectonic Map article summary. Due Monday
  • Work on study guide. Due Tuesday.
  • Seismic Activity Map- if not recorded data daily.
  • Test
  • Tuesday, Feb. 5th

52
Plate Tectonic Map Qts.
dpc.ucar.edu
53
Earths Tectonic Plates
dpc.ucar.edu
54
After Test
  • Turn in the following
  • Plate Tectonics Map Activity w/map.
  • Study Guide (optional)
  • Sea Floor Spreading for partial credit
  • Plate Tectonic articles for partial credit
  • Pick-up
  • Earthquake Worksheet. Due Monday
  • Seismic Activity Map is also due Monday

55
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