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Wind and Other Renewable Energy Sources

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Wind and Other Renewable Energy Sources Physics 1303 Renewable Energy comes in many forms: Wind Energy Hydroelectric Geothermal Biomass Ocean Thermal Wind Energy Uses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wind and Other Renewable Energy Sources


1
Wind and Other Renewable Energy Sources
  • Physics 1303

2
Renewable Energy comes in many forms
  • Wind Energy
  • Hydroelectric
  • Geothermal
  • Biomass
  • Ocean Thermal

3
Wind Energy
  • Uses the kinetic energy of wind.
  • Needs high wind speed.
  • Maximum efficiency is 59.
  • Practical efficiency is nearly 50.

4
Wind Resource Map of the US
5
Desert Sky
  • Wind project
  • Iraan, Texas
  • Owner American Electric Power
  • Customer CPS
  • Manufacturer GE Wind Energy (formerly Enron)

6
Desert Sky
  • 1.5 MW/Turbine
  • 107 Turbines
  • Min. Wind 8 mph
  • Max. Wind 56 mph

7
Desert Sky
  • Financing Depends on State Renewable Tax
    Incentive Program.
  • AEI must guarantee to operate the system for 30
    years

8
Desert Sky
  • ERCOT (Energy Reliability Council of Texas)
    maintains the electric grid for most of the
    state.
  • AEI is not allowed to generate more than 100 MW

9
Desert Sky
  • Wind has some impact on the site as shown in the
    photo.
  • Source of income for ranchers.

10
Wind Calculation
  • Stop and do the wind problem.

11
Wind Problem
The Desert Sky Project near Fort Stockton, Texas
has 107 wind turbines spread over 15 square miles
on Indian Mesa. Each Turbine has a maximum
capacity of 1.5 MW of power.
12
1.    Calculate the total power capacity of this
wind farm.
  • Capacity
  • 107 turbines 1.5 MW / turbine
  • 161 MW

13
2. The capital cost of this project is about 175
million. Calculate the capital cost for each watt
of installed capacity..
  • Cost per Watt
  • 175 million / 161 MW
  • 1 / watt

14
3.  Assuming the project runs on average at 50
of capacity, calculate the total energy produced
in a year. Express your answer in kWh. .
  • Annual Energy Production
  • 0.50 161 MW 24 h/day 365 day/year
  • 700 Million kWh / year

15
4. Assuming the commercial value of this
electricity is 0.03/kWh, calculate the value of
the energy produced in a year.
  • Value
  • 700 million kWh 0.03 / kWh
  • 21 million / year

16
5. Neglecting the cost of running and maintaining
this system, estimate the payback period for this
investment.
  • Payback Cost / Savings
  • 175 million / 21 million /year
  • 8 years

17
Hydroelectric power
  • Energy is stored as gravitational potential
    energy.
  • Electrical generators convert mechanical energy
    to electrical energy.

18
Hydroelectric power
  • Largest source of renewable energy in US
  • Fill with silt
  • Loss of wild rivers
  • Catastrophic flooding
  • Salmon breeding blocked

19
Geothermal Energy
  • Localized surface level hot spots.
  • Geothermal energy may be exploited for local
    uses.
  • Not an important global resource.

20
Geothermal Energy
  • An important resource for Costa Rica and some
    other countries.
  • Not really renewable.

21
Biomass Energy
  • Plant material is burned directly or converted
    into a fuel.
  • An example Conversion of grain to ethanol and
    the production of gasohol (10 ethanol and 90
    gasoline)

22
Biomass Energy
  • Renewable
  • Recycles CO2
  • Could use agricultural waste
  • Competes for agricultural land
  • Low efficiency

23
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
  • OTEC uses the temperature differences between the
    ocean surface and ocean depths to run a heat
    engine.
  • Highest potential in deep tropical waters like
    the Gulf of Mexico.

24
OTEC
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Max eff. (Thigh - Tlow )/ Tlow
  • So, efficiency is pretty low.

25
Wind and Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Do these technologies represent the dawning of a
    new age of sustainable development?
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