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Climate and Climate Change

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Climate and Climate Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate and Climate Change


1
Climate and Climate Change
2
Lesson 1
  • Factors Affecting Climate

3
Climate
  • Weather Condition of the atmosphere at a
    particular place and time
  • Climate average, year after year events
    Conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds
    and clouds in an area
  • Factors Affecting Climate
  • Precipitation
  • Temperature

4
Factors Affecting Precipitation
  • 1. Prevailing Winds moves air masses
  • Amount of water vapor in an air mass determines
    how much precipitation will fall
  • Warm air can carry MORE water vapor than cold air
  • Amount of water vapor depends on where winds
    originate from (ocean or land)
  • Sinking cold air warms as it nears the earths
    surface and absorbs water vapor which creates
    very dry air or desert

5
Factors affecting Precipitation
  • 2. Mountain Ranges
  • Forces air to rise and cool
  • Water vapor condenses and forms clouds
  • Rain/snow falls on the windward side
  • Cool/dry air on the leeward side
  • Known as a rain shadow

6
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7
Factors Affecting Temperature
  • Latitude
  • Areas at the equator receive the suns direct
    rays
  • At areas near the poles the suns rays are spread
    out over a larger area
  • Three Zones
  • Tropical 0-23.5 (latitude) direct sun rays
    year round
  • Temperate 23.5-66.5(latitude)direct rays in
    the summer
  • Polar 66.5-90 (latitude) sun rays strike at a
    low angle

8
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9
Factors Affecting Temperature
  • Altitude
  • Altitude can create a different climate due to
    the distance above sea level
  • Temperature decreases at 6.5C for every
    kilometer above sea level
  • Example Mount Kilimanjaro is located at 3 S
    latitude yet its peaks are covered in snow

10
Factors Affecting Temperature
  • Distance from Large Bodies of Water
  • Marine Climates
  • Mild winters and cool summers
  • Continental Climates
  • Extreme fluxes in temperature

11
Lesson 2
  • Ocean Currents

12
Ocean Currents
  • Ocean Currents- streams of water within the
    oceans that move in regular patterns
  • Warm currents carry warm water from the tropics
    to the poles
  • Cold currents bring cold water from the poles
    toward the equator
  • Currents affect the land because the surface of
    the water warms or cools the air above it then
    the air moves to nearby land

13
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14
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15
Lesson 3
  • Climate Regions

16
Types of Climate Regions
  • Six main types of climate regions
  • Tropical
  • Arid (Dry)
  • Temperate marine (Mediterranean)
  • Temperate Continental
  • Polar
  • Mountain

17
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18
Tropical
  • Characterized by
  • Precipitationlarge amounts
  • Temperaturewarm all year

19
Arid
  • Characterized by
  • Precipitationvery little
  • Usually due to a prevailing wind that carries
    little moisture.

20
Temperate Marine
  • Characterized by
  • Temperaturemild in summer and winter
  • Due to proximity of a large body of water.

21
Temperate Continental
  • Characterized by
  • Temperaturecold winters, hot summers

22
Polar
  • Characterized by
  • Temperaturevery cold winters, cool summers
  • Due to latitude

23
Lesson 4
  • Solar Energy

24
Solar Energy
  • The Sun emits energy in the form of
    electromagnetic waves, including light and heat.
  • The heat from the Sun
  • Determines climate
  • Creates weather patterns
  • Is transferred in 3 ways by conduction,
    convection, and radiation.

25
Conduction
  • The transfer of energy from one particle to
    another through collisions of atoms. Touch

26
Convection
  • Heat is transferred by the movement of currents
    in a fluid, like water or air. Convection
    currents in liquids and gases only.

27
Radiation
  • Heat is transferred by electromagnetic waves.

28
Solar Energy and the Atmosphere
  • The heat from the sun heats the Earths surface
    unevenly.
  • The heat from the sun heats the particles in the
    atmosphere through radiation.
  • The particles pass energy through conduction.
  • Warm air rises and cool air sinks. This causes
    convection currents.
  • The movement of air creates weather.

29
Lesson 5
  • Specific Heat

30
Specific Heat
  • Specific heat tells how much energy is needed to
    raise a substances temperature one degree
    kelvin.
  • The amount of energy needed to change the
    temperature depends on the substance.
  • Water requires more energy to raise its
    temperature than sand does.

31
Specific Heat and Climate
  • An areas climate can be determined by specific
    heat.
  • An area near water will not have drastic
    temperature changes.
  • An area that is only land will have drastic
    temperature changes.

32
Sea Breeze
  • A sea breeze develops during the day.
  • The sand has a lower specific heat so the air
    over the sand heats up quickly.
  • Water has a high specific heat so the air stays
    cooler.
  • Since hot air rises, cool air comes from over the
    water and blows onto land.

33
Land Breeze
  • A land breeze occurs at night.
  • Sand has a lower specific heat so the air over it
    cools quickly.
  • Water has a high specific heat so the air over it
    stays warmer.
  • A convection current occurs. The warm air over
    the water rises and the cool air from the land
    takes its place.
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