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Language Objectives

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Language Objectives * * Planning Teachers should write both content and language objectives Content objectives are drawn from the subject area standards Content ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Language Objectives


1
Language Objectives
2
Planning
  • Teachers should write both content and language
    objectives
  • Content objectives are drawn from the subject
    area standards
  • Content objectives can demonstrate
  • declarative knowledge - what students should know
  • procedural knowledge - what students should be
    able to do to demonstrate their understanding of
    the content

3
Planning
  • Language objectives should provide ELLs with the
    language needed to understand and express content
    knowledge
  • Language objectives can be written for the text
    level, paragraph level, sentence level, or word
    level

4
ELLS
  • Content objectives should be the same for ELLs
    and native English speakers
  • Language objectives should vary depending on the
    ELLs level of English proficiency
  • Consider the following example

5
Content objective Students will demonstrate an
understanding of the stages of the water cycle
  • Beginners Students will draw and label pictures
    of each stage
  • Intermediate Using pictures as visual supports,
    students will write sentences to describe each
    stage
  • Advanced Students will write a science report
    describing the stages of the water cycle

6
Text level language objectives Knowledge of
genres
  • Personal genres
  • Literary genres
  • Factual genres
  • Analytic genres

7
Text-Level language objectives
  • Students will understand the social purpose of
    different genres
  • Students will understand how different genres
    should be organized
  • Students will understand the language features
    appropriate to each genre

8
Purpose of the genre
  • Narrative to entertain and, often, to teach a
    lesson or moral
  • Argument to persuade the reader to agree with a
    claim or point of view made by the writer

9
Possible Language Objective
  • Students will write a paragraph contrasting the
    purpose of a narrative and the purpose of an
    argument.

10
Organizational structure
  • Narrative orientation, events, complication,
    resolution
  • Argument statement of position and preview of
    following arguments, arguments with supporting
    evidence, (counterarguments) reaffirmation of
    writers position

11
Possible language objective
  • Students will write a narrative that includes the
    typical elements expected in a narrative.
  • Students will be able to label the different
    sections of a narrative (orientation, events,
    complication, resolution).

12
Language features of narratives
  • sequenced in time so uses time connectives
  • written in past tense
  • contains many action verbs
  • also contains dialogue and saying verbs (some may
    show how things are said)
  • also contains thinking verbs to show what
    participants are thinking/feeling
  • uses descriptive language to describe people and
    things

13
Possible language objective
  • Students will add dialogue to a narrative they
    have written using a variety of saying verbs.
  • Students will add dialogue to a narrative they
    have written correctly punctuating quotations.
  • Students will write a narrative using past tense
    action verbs to show action and present tense
    verbs in dialogue.

14
Language features of arguments
  • Uses connectives to show logical sequence (first,
    then, finally and therefore)
  • uses simple present tense to express
    generalizations
  • uses content-specific vocabulary
  • uses evaluative vocabulary to indicate writers
    point of view

15
Possible teaching activities
  • Have students work in groups
  • Give each group an excerpt from a different genre
  • Ask students to decide which genre they have
  • Ask them to support their decision with textual
    evidence

16
Possible teaching activities
  • Use graphic organizers to help students organize
    their writing to follow typical structures of
    genres
  • Deconstruct short texts to help students see
    typical genre structures
  • Assess student writing based on the presence or
    absence of typical genre structures

17
Possible teaching activities
  • Choose particular language features to teach
  • verb tenses
  • types of connectives (signal words)
  • descriptive adjectives
  • content-specific vocabulary

18
Paragraph level language objectives
  • Students can use different language forms to
    provide greater cohesion in paragraphs. These
    include
  • pronouns that clearly refer to previous sections
    of the text
  • conjunctions that show connections between and
    within sentences
  • nominalizations of verbs presented earlier in the
    text
  • different patterns of cohesion to connect
    sentences

19
Possible language objectives
  • Students will write a paragraph using chaining to
    provide cohesion between sentences.
  • Students will provide the correct pronoun forms
    to complete a Cloze activity.

20
Possible teaching activities
  • Lessons on pronouns
  • Lessons on conjunctions that signal relationships
    within the text
  • Lessons on nominalization
  • Lessons on patterns of cohesion between sentences

21
Sentence level language objectives
  • Students can learn to write complete sentences
    with appropriate punctuation
  • Students can learn to write complex sentences by
    connecting clauses with conjunctions
  • Students can learn to write lexically dense
    sentence by using expanded nominal groups

22
Possible language objectives
  • Students will expand nominal groups by adding
    adjectives and relative clauses.
  • Students will add appropriate end punctuation to
    a passage that lacks end punctuation (periods,
    question marks, exclamation points)

23
Possible teaching activities
  • Work on simple sentences
  • Work on adding conjunctions to create complex
    sentences
  • Work on using nominalization to create lexically
    dense sentences
  • Deconstruct reconstruct activities

24
Word level language objectives
  • Teaching content-specific vocabulary related to
    different fields being studied

25
Possible teaching activities
  • Various activities to teach individual words,
    word parts, and word learning strategies, such as
    using context clues

26
Genre-based Teachingbased on Gibbons 2009
  • Building the field
  • Modeling the genre
  • Joint construction
  • Independent writing
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