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Object Oriented Programming Language (OOP)

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Title: Object Oriented Programming Language (OOP)


1
Object Oriented Programming Language (OOP)
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  • Presented by Ustaz Mutaz Elradi Saad alla Saeed
  • Faculty of Science Technologies
  • Nile Valley University
  • Sudan , Atbara

2
Course Outline
  • OOP Concept
  • OOP History
  • Basic Concept
  • Classes Types
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Private Inheritance
  • Protected Inheritance
  • Public Inheritance

3
  • Multiple Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • OOP With C Language

4
Explanation
  • A Class is a way to bind the data and its
    associated functions together. All the elements
    of a class are private by default, even elements
    can be declared as public or protected. An object
    is an instance of a class.
  • Syntax
  • class class-name
  • accessspecifier
  • private data and functions

5
  • In the above syntax the every class has a unique
    name, the "accessspecifier" can either private,
    public, protected. The "protected" is used when
    inhertinace is applied.

6
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class dat
  • private
  • int sdata
  • public
  • void setdat( int a)
  • sdata a
  • void show( )
  • cout ltlt "\nSet data is " ltlt sdata

void main() dat x,y x.setdat(1000)
y.setdat(1245) x.show() y.show()
Result Set Data is1000 Set Data is1245
7
  • In the above class example the "private" object
    "sdata" is used only within the function. But the
    functions "setdat", "show" are used in the main
    function since they are "public".

8
Access specifiers
  • defines the access rights for the statements or
    functions that follows it until another access
    specifier or till the end of a class. The three
    types of access specifiers are "private",
    "public", "protected".
  • private The members declared as "private" can be
    accessed only within the same class and not from
    outside the class.
  • public The members declared as "public" are
    accessible within the class as well as from
    outside the class.
  • protected The members declared as "protected"
    cannot be accessed from outside the class, but
    can be accessed from a derived class. This is
    used when inheritaance is applied to the members
    of a class.

9
Nested class
  • Nested class is a class defined inside a class,
    that can be used within the scope of the class in
    which it is defined. In C nested classes are
    not given importance because of the strong and
    flexible usage of inheritance. Its objects are
    accessed using "NestDisplay".

10
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Nest
  • public
  • class Display
  • private
  • int s
  • public
  • void sum( int a, int b)
  • s ab
  • void show( )
  • cout ltlt "\nSum of a and b is " ltlt s

void main() NestDisplay x
x.sum(12, 10) x.show()
Result Sum of a and b is22
11
  • In the above example, the nested class
    "Display" is given as "public" member of the
    class "Nest".

12
Local class
  • Explanation
  • Local class is a class defined inside a
    function. Following are some of the rules for
    using these classes.
  • Global variables declared above the function can
    be used with the scope operator "".
  • Static variables declared inside the function can
    also be used.
  • Automatic local variables cannot be used.
  • It cannot have static data member objects.
  • Member functions must be defined inside the local
    classes.
  • Enclosing functions cannot access the private
    member objects of a local class.

13
Example
include ltiostream.hgt int y void
g() int main() g()
return 0 void g()
class local public void
put( int n) yn

int get() return y ab
ab.put(20) cout ltlt "The value assigned
to y is"ltlt ab.get()
Result The value assigned to y is20
14
  • In the above example, the local class
    "local" uses the variable "y" which is declared
    globally. Inside the function it is used using
    the "" operator. The object "ab" is used to
    set, get the assigned values in the local class.

15
  • Explanation
  • Object Oriented programming is method of
    programming where -
  • a system is considered as a collection of
    objects that interact together to accomplish
    certain tasks. Objects are entities that
    encapsulate data and procedures that operate on
    the data.
  • In OOPS first a concept known as "Object Oriented
    Analysis (OOA)" is used to specify the objects in
    term of real world requirements, their behavior
    and interactions required. The next concept would
    be the "Object Oriented Design (OOD)" that
    converts these real-time requirements as a
    hierarchy of objects in terms of software
    development requirement. Finally OOPS is used to
    implement the requirements using the C
    programming language.
  • The main purpose of object oriented programming
    is to simplify the design, programming and most
    importantly debugging a program. So to modify a
    particular data, it is easy to identify which
    function to use. To add additional features it is
    easy to identify where to add functions and its
    related data.

16
  • Following are the basic elements of Object
    oriented programming(OOPS)
  • Object
  • Classes
  • Inheritance
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Polymorphism
  • Message Passing
  • Encapsulation

17
Objects
  • Explanation
  • Objects are instance of a class, that
    interact with each other at runtime. In OOPs,
    Objects are declared at the end of the class
    definition or after the "" braces. They can be
    of any type based on its declaration

18
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Cube
  • public
  • int cub( val)
  • r valvalval return r
  • void show()
  • cout ltlt "The cube is" ltlt r
  • private
  • int val, r x

void main() Cube x x.cub(2)
x.show()
Result The cbe is 8
In the above example "x" is an object of the
class "Cube used to access the functions inside
the class.
19
Classes
  • Explanation has the data and its associated
    function wrapped in it. Classes are also known as
    a collection of similar objects or objects of
    same type. In the OOPs concept the variables
    declared inside a class are known as "Data
    Members" and the functions are known as "Member
    Functions".

20
Syntax
  • class class-name
  • private
  • variable declaration
  • function declaration
  • public
  • variable declaration
  • function declaration

21
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Square
  • private
  • int side, a
  • public
  • int area( side)
  • a sideside
  • return a
  • void show()
  • cout ltlt "The area is" ltlt a

void main() Square x
x.area(10) x.show()
Result The area is 100
22
  • In the above OOPs example the class "square" has
    functions "area" and "show" to calculate the area
    of the square and to display the area. so all
    these are objects that are related to the class
    "Square".

23
The End of lecture
24
Explanation
  • Inheritance is a method by which new classes are
    created or derived from the existing classes.
    Using Inheritance some qualities of the base
    classes are added to the newly derived class,
    apart from its own features The advantage of
    using "Inheritance" is due to the reusability of
    classes in multiple derived classes. The ""
    operator is used for inheriting a class.

25
The following table lists the visibility of the
base class members in the derived classes
  Derived Class Visibility Derived Class Visibility Derived Class Visibility
Base Class Visibility Public derivation Private derivation Protected derivation
Private Not inherited Not inherited Not inherited
Protected Protected Private Protected
Public Public Private Protected
26
Following are the different types of inheritance
followed in C.
  • Single Inheritance
  • Multiple Inheritance
  • Hierarchical Inheritance
  • Multilevel Inheritance
  • Hybrid Inheritance

27
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Value
  • protected
  • int val
  • public
  • void set_values (int a)
  • vala
  • class Square public Value
  • public
  • int square()
  • return (valval)

int main () Square sq sq.set_values (5)
cout ltlt "The square of 5 is" ltlt sq.square()
ltlt endl return 0
Result The square of 5 is 25
In the above example the object "val" of class
"Value" is inherited in the derived class
"Square".
28
Explanation
  • Single Inheritance is method in which a derived
    class has only one base class.

29
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Value
  • protected
  • int val
  • public
  • void set_values (int a)
  • vala
  • class Cube public Value
  • public
  • int cube()
  • return (valvalval)

int main () Cube cub cub.set_values (5)
cout ltlt "The Cube of 5 is" ltlt cub.cube() ltlt
endl return 0
Result The Cube of 5 is 125
In the above example the derived class "Cube" has
only one base class "Value". This is the single
inheritance OOP's concept.
30
Multiple Inheritance
  • Explanation
  • Multiple Inheritance is a method by which a
    class is derived from more than one base class.

31
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • using namespace std
  • class Square
  • protected
  • int l
  • public
  • void set_values (int x)
  • lx
  • class CShow
  • public
  • void show(int i)
  • void CShowshow (int i)
  • cout ltlt "The area of the square
    is" ltlt i ltlt endl

int main () Area r r.set_values
(5) r.show(r.area()) return 0

Result The area of the square is 25
32
  • In the above example the derived class
    "Area" is derived from two base classes "Square"
    and "CShow". This is the multiple inheritance
    OOP's concept in C.

33
Hierarchical Inheritance
  • Explanation
  • Hierarchical Inheritance is a method of
    inheritance where one or more derived classes is
    derived from common base class.

34
Example
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class Side
  • protected
  • int l
  • public
  • void set_values (int x)
  • lx
  • class Square public Side
  • public
  • int sq()
  • return (l l)
  • class Cube public Side
  • public int cub()
  • return (lll)

int main () Square s s.set_values (10)
cout ltlt "The square value is" ltlt
s.sq() ltlt endl Cube c c.set_values (20) cout
ltlt "The cube value is" ltlt c.cub() ltlt
endl return 0
Result The square value is 100 The cube value
is8000
35
  • In the above example the two derived classes
    "Square", "Cube" uses
  • a single base class "Side". Thus two
    classes are inherited from a single class. This
    is the hierarchical inheritance OOP's concept in
    C.

36
Multilevel Inheritance
  • Explanation
  • Multilevel Inheritance is a method where a
    derived class is derived from another derived
    class.

37
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class mm
  • protected
  • int rollno
  • public
  • void get_num(int a)
  • rollno a
  • void put_num()
  • cout ltlt "Roll Number Is\n"ltlt rollno
    ltlt "\n"
  • class marks public mm
  • protected
  • int sub1
  • int sub2
  • public
  • void get_marks(int x,int y)
  • sub1 x

38
  • void put_marks(void)
  • cout ltlt "Subject 1" ltlt sub1 ltlt "\n"
  • cout ltlt "Subject 2" ltlt sub2 ltlt "\n"
  • class res public marks
  • protected
  • float tot
  • public
  • void disp(void)
  • tot sub1sub2
  • put_num()
  • put_marks()
  • cout ltlt "Total"ltlt tot

int main() res std1 std1.get_num(5)
std1.get_marks(10,20) std1.disp()
return 0
Result Roll Number Is 5 Subject 1 10 Subject
2 20 Total 30
In the above example, the derived function "res"
uses the function "put_num()" from another
derived class "marks", which just a level
above. This is the multilevel inheritance OOP's
concept in C.
39
Hybrid Inheritance
  • Explanation
  • "Hybrid Inheritance" is a method where one or
    more types of inheritance are combined together
    and used.

40
  • include ltiostream.hgt
  • class mm
  • protected
  • int rollno
  • public
  • void get_num(int a)
  • rollno a
  • void put_num()
  • cout ltlt "Roll Number Is"ltlt rollno ltlt
    "\n"
  • class marks public mm
  • protected
  • int sub1
  • int sub2
  • public
  • void get_marks(int x,int y)
  • sub1 x

41
  • class extra
  • protected
  • float e
  • public
  • void get_extra(float s)
  • es
  • void put_extra(void)
  • cout ltlt "Extra Score" ltlt e ltlt "\n"
  • class res public marks, public extra
  • protected
  • float tot
  • public
  • void disp(void)
  • tot sub1sub2e
  • put_num()
  • put_marks()
  • put_extra()

int main() res std1 std1.get_num(10)
std1.get_marks(10,20) std1.get_extra(33.12)
std1.disp() return 0
Result Roll Number Is 10 Subject 1 10
Subject 2 20 Extra score33.12 Total 63.12
42
  • In the above example the derived class "res"
    uses the function "put_num()". Here the
    "put_num()" function is derived first to class
    "marks". Then it is derived and used in class
    "res". This is an example of "multilevel
    inheritance-OOP's concept". But the class "extra"
    is inherited a single time in the class "res", an
    example for "Single Inheritance". Since this code
    uses both "multilevel" and "single" inheritance
    it is an example of "Hybrid Inheritance".

43
The End of Lecture
44
CONTACTS
  • Mutaz Saeed mutelr_at_gmail.com
  • mutelr_at_hotmail.com
  • mutazko2000_at_hotmail.com
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