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20th Century

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Title: 20th Century


1
20th Century
  • Chapter 20
  • United States
  • Adventures in Time and Place

2
World War I
  • In August 1914 WWI began.
  • Allied Powers Britain, France, Italy, Belgium,
    and Russia
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
    Turkey
  • Few Americans were eager to involve the U.S. in a
    distant conflict.
  • Woodrow Wilson was president at this time. He
    won reelection with the slogan, He kept us out
    of war.

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sped/images/wilson-woodrow.jpg
3
Dangers at Sea
  • Britain and Germany were fighting over control of
    the sea. Both wanted to keep the other side from
    receiving the supplies it needed.
  • Germans used U-boats, or submarines.
  • Germany sunk the Lusitania which contained
    weapons and people 1,198 people died. 128 of
    them were Americans.
  • People in the U.S. were angry!
  • The U.S. bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark
    for 25 million to protect American shipping and
    the Panama Canal. The U.S. built a naval base on
    these islands.
  • From Jan. to March of 1917, Germans sank 8 U.S.
    ships.
  • President Wilson asked Congress to declare war on
    the Central Powers. On April 16, 1917, they did.

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tania2.jpg
4
Uncle Sam
  • Uncle Sam is a symbol of the United States, with
    the first usage of the term dating from the War
    of 1812 and the first illustration dating from
    1852.
  • During WWI a very famous poster showed Uncle Sam
    pointing at the people with the words, I WANT
    YOU FOR U.S. ARMY. The artist James Montgomery
    Flagg painted the poster in 1917.

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.jpg
5
The War Front
  • The war in Europe was a new kind of war.
  • Technology made combat more destructive machine
    guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas.
  • About 30,000 American soldiers lost their lives
    at the battle of Meuse-Argonne.
  • By the end of the war, about 2 million Americans
    had served in the military, but blacks and whites
    still couldnt fight along side each other. The
    military was still segregated.

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tanks_franzoesisch1.jpg
6
The Home Front
  • The army needed weapons, food, clothing, and
    fuel.
  • The government took over the railroads and
    telegraphs to speed production.
  • Many factories worked overtime.
  • With men fighting overseas, many jobs became
    available to African Americans and women.
  • People helped the war effort by saving scarce
    products or doing without them. The government
    asked for Wheatless Mondays and Meatless
    Tuesdays so more food would be available for
    troops.
  • In 1918 Congress adopted daylight savings time.
    By setting their clocks an hour earlier,
    Americans gained an extra hr. of daylight and
    saved fuel needed for war.

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7
Making Peace
  • The continuing arrival of American troops, money,
    and supplies weakened the Central Powers.
  • On Nov. 11, 1918, they surrendered. This is now
    a holiday called Veterans Day.
  • 10 million soldiers were killed. Over 100,000
    Americans.
  • In 1919 representatives of the Allied Powers met
    in Versailles, France. They created a peace
    agreement that blamed the war on Germany. It was
    called the Treaty of Versailles.
  • The treaty took away Germanys colonies, redrew
    its national borders, and demanded that Germany
    pay heavy fines.
  • President Wilson persuaded the Allied Powers to
    create a League of Nations, the 1st organization
    of countries designed to prevent future wars.
  • Many Americans were afraid the League of Nations
    would drag the U.S. into more wars. Congress
    rejected Wilsons plans to join the League.

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8
The Great Migration
  • In the 1890s many African Americans moved from
    rural areas to more urban areas in the Northeast
    and Middle West.
  • Most moved north to escape discrimination and
    poverty.
  • Factory jobs were a great improvement over farm
    work.
  • The Chicago Defender was a popular African
    American newspaper that encouraged the migration.

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9
Struggles for Justice
  • In 1881, a former slave, named Booker T.
    Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute in
    Alabama. At Tuskegee, African Americans were
    taught skills such as printing, bricklaying, and
    teaching, which would help them out of poverty.
  • To fight discrimination, the National Association
    for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was
    founded in 1909 by both blacks and whites.

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10
The Roaring Twenties
  • About 10 years after World War I the U.S. enjoyed
    a time of prosperity.
  • Income was rising, people were making money
    buying stocks, and living conditions improved for
    many.
  • More free time start of the 8 hour work day.
  • New appliances washing machines, irons, and
    vacuums.

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11
Culture
  • People started listening to jazz music. Rooted
    in African American culture, jazz is full of
    striking rhythms and sounds. Duke Ellington
    helped to give the decade another nickname, The
    Jazz Age.
  • Many writers tried to capture the special feeling
    of the Roaring 20s Francis Scott Key
    Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, William Faulkner,
    Dorothy Parker, Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen,
    and Zora Neale Hurston.

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12
Technology
  • By the end of the 20s, there was one car on the
    road for every 5 people. The automobile linked
    the city and country more closely - school,
    market, and shopping was easier.
  • Tourism boomed, and motels (hotel for motorists)
    started showing up in 1925.
  • The first radio station started broadcasting in
    1920. People gathered around radios to hear
    music, news, sporting events, comedy shows, and
    the 1st soap operas.
  • People had been enjoying silent films since the
    early 1900s, but now people were able to enjoy
    talking pictures (talkies) thanks to Edison.
  • Al Jolsons The Jazz Singer appeared in 1927.

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13
Technology Continued
  • Media types of communication that reaches large
    numbers of people. For example, radio,
    newspapers, and magazines.
  • No TV yet.
  • Readers Digest and Time started during this
    period.
  • So begins advertising.
  • Celebrity fame begins.
  • Charles Lindberg was the 1st to fly nonstop and
    solo across the Atlantic Ocean (NY to Paris).
    Lucky Lindy
  • Amelia Earhart was the 1st woman to cross the
    Atlantic.

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14
Women Fight For Suffrage
  • The fight for suffrage is the right to vote.
  • In 1870 the 15th amendment gave African American
    men the right to vote.
  • In 1872 Susan B. Anthony and a group of women
    marched into a polling place in Rochester, NY,
    and cast their vote for president. They were
    arrested.
  • A womens suffrage amendment was introduced to
    congress in 1878, but it did not pass.
  • Women did not give up. It was reintroduced in
    every session of Congress for the next 40 years.
  • In 1920 women were given the right to vote with
    the 19th amendment.
  • During WWI women worked in businesses and
    factories. Once the soldiers returned the women
    returned to being homemakers.

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15
The Great Depression
  • Prosperity ended in 1929 with the crash of the
    stock exchange, called Black Tuesday.
  • A stock exchange is a special market where shares
    of stock are bought and sold.
  • The prices of stocks began to drop early that
    fall. This scared investors, so they started
    selling their stocks. The sudden sales caused
    prices to fall even more. Investors panicked,
    and everyone wanted to sell. No one wanted to
    buy. As a result, stocks became worthless, and
    many people lost lots of money.
  • Many banks and businesses failed. Thousands of
    Americans lost their savings and jobs.
  • Some people lost all their money, so they
    couldnt buy goods or services.
  • Companies and factories had to shut down.

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16
Hard Times
  • Many families lost their homes because of the
    shortage of jobs.
  • People were unable to pay taxes, so some schools
    had to close.
  • Dust Bowl 150,000 square miles of the Great
    Plains turned to dust because of a drought.
    Crops died, and farmers went broke. Black
    Blizzards (giant dust storms) blew across the
    plains.

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17
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Known as FDR and cousin of Theodore Roosevelt.
  • In 1921 polio took away the use of his legs.
  • Married to Eleanor.
  • Elected president in 1932.
  • In his Inaugural Address he promised to fight the
    Depression with all the power of the federal
    government.

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o-roosevelt.jpg
18
The New Deal
  • The New Deal was a program Roosevelt developed to
    bring about a change in the way the economy
    worked.
  • Banks were closed and reopened under government
    supervision. Loans were given to farmers and
    business in danger of closing. A system was
    developed to control the sale of stocks.
  • Social Security Act gave financial help to
    retired Americans and the disabled.
  • Congress passed a law that gave workers the right
    to form labor unions.
  • Minimum wage and standard work weeks of 40 hrs.
    were established by law.
  • Fact The FLSA will increase the federal minimum
    wage in three steps to 5.85 per hour effective
    July 24, 2007 to 6.55 per hour effective July
    24, 2008 and to 7.25 per hour effective July
    24, 2009.

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19
Putting People to Work
  • Roosevelt created various programs funded by
    taxes paid to the government to put people back
    to work.
  • The Works Progress Administration (WPA) put
    jobless people to work building schools,
    libraries, playgrounds, and hospitals. They also
    employed artists, teachers, and musicians.
  • The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) hired more
    than 250,000 young men to maintain the forests.
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built
    bridges, roads, and dams.
  • The Hoover Dam, named after Herbert Hoover, on
    the Colorado River was completed in 1936 and
    helped irrigate soil. It prevented flooding and
    generated hydroelectricity.
  • Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by the
    force of running water.

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svegas/images/Hoover20Dam.jpg
20
Eleanor, Everywhere
  • Eleanor Roosevelt traveled throughout the country
    as an extra set of eyes for FDR.
  • She wrote a newspaper column called My Day.
  • She also fought hard for civil rights and
    equality for women.

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t_14.jpg
21
World War II
  • Power-hungry dictators were taking control.
  • Dictator a leader with complete authority over
    the government.
  • Benito Mussolini - Italy.
  • Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Germany
  • A group of military officers Japan
  • In 1936 they signed a treaty of friendship and
    called themselves Axis countries.
  • They expanded their power by invading neighboring
    countries.
  • Most Americans hoped we wouldn't get involved.

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22
Threats to Peace
  • After the damage of WWI, many countries were
    afraid of starting another conflict.
  • September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland.
  • Great Britain and France (Allies) declared war on
    the Axis.
  • In 1940 Hitler controlled all of western Europe
    except Great Britain.

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4).jpg
23
Pearl Harbor
  • A surprise attack by Japan. It drew the U.S.
    into the war.
  • Japan was taking over islands in the Pacific
    Ocean. Part of their plan was to force the U.S.
    out of this region.
  • Dec. 7, 1941, the Japanese struck the American
    base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • Japanese bombs destroyed ships, planes, and
    military supplies.
  • 2,403 Americans were killed.
  • The next day President Roosevelt asked Congress
    to declare war on Japan.
  • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war
    on the U.S.

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24
Joining the Allies
  • The U.S. joined the Allies.
  • Communism is an economic and political system in
    which all property is owned by the government.
  • Josef Stalin dictated the Soviet Union.
  • In 1939 he made a deal with Hitler to keep the 2
    countries from fighting.
  • Hitler double-crossed him and attacked in June
    1941.
  • From that point on the Soviet Union fought with
    the Allies.

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25
War
  • On the Pacific the Allies fought the Japanese.
  • In Africa and Europe they fought Germany and
    Italy.
  • Over the next 4 yrs. 15 million Americans served
    in the military.
  • For the first time women were allowed to join the
    military.
  • Factories worked overtime to produce goods for
    war.
  • By 1944 American factories produced an average of
    263 planes a day.
  • The employment of women nearly doubled during
    WWII.
  • Americans were asked to conserve metal, gasoline,
    foil, meat, and other items.

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pg
26
Relocation Camps
  • After Pearl Harbor many Americans worried about
    the Japanese Americans living on the west coast
    were they loyal?
  • In 1942, the government made over 100,000
    Japanese Americans leave their homes.
  • Their right to speech and their right to vote
    were taken away.
  • They were moved quickly to relocation camps
    farther inland.
  • In 1988 the U.S. government issued an official
    apology for its actions.

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27
Battles Around the World
  • The Allies pushed back their enemies from 1943 to
    1944.
  • The Axis had stopped expanding and was on
    defense.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower planned a massive invasion
    on June 6, 1944 (D-Day).
  • The term D-Day is used for the day and hour on
    which a combat attack or operation is to be
    initiated.
  • Thousands of troops landed at Normandy, France.
  • Fighting was fierce many died.
  • The Allies pushed east toward Germany while the
    Soviet Union pushed west.
  • Berlin, Germany, fell on April 16, 1945. Germany
    surrendered on May 7. The war in Europe was
    over.

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28
Holocaust
  • In concentration camps Germans enslaved and
    murdered those people they considered their
    enemies.
  • 12 million men, women, and children died.
  • ½ of the victims were Jews.
  • The attempt to destroy the Jewish people is known
    as the Holocaust.

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29
Japan Surrenders
  • In 1945 Americans struck against Japan and
    captured two of Japans islands, Iwo Jima and
    Okinawa.
  • President Roosevelt died in 1945.
  • Harry S. Truman became president and had to
    decide invasion or atomic bomb?
  • He decided to drop the bomb to spare lives of
    those who would die in battle.
  • Hiroshima at least 100,000
  • Nagasaki 70,000
  • World War II was over.

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Cold War
  • After the war the U.S. was very successful.
  • President Truman had lots of ideas like raising
    minimum wage, creating housing for poor people,
    helping veterans, and ending segregation.
  • BUT, Truman was worried about the Cold War with
    the Soviet Union.
  • Cold War a war fought with ideas, words, money,
    and sometimes force.
  • The U.S. and the Soviet Union were the 2 most
    powerful countries superpowers. They became
    enemies after WWII.

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31
The Iron Curtain
  • Soviet Union sent troops into Eastern Europe and
    put these countries under their rule communism.
  • In 1949 the U.S. and the countries of Western
    Europe formed the North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization (NATO) to fight the spread of
    communism.
  • President Truman sent 13 billion in food and
    goods to help Western Europe after WWII. This
    was called the Marshall Plan.

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32
Korean War
  • North Korea led a surprise attack on South Korea
    to unite the 2 countries by force.
  • On July 5 U.S. troops rushed to help South Korea.
  • 16 countries sent soldiers to South Korea under
    the leadership of the United Nation (UN).
  • The UN was formed after WWII.
  • The UN was an organization created to keep world
    peace, promote justice, and protect human rights.
  • Forces kept North Korea from overpowering South
    Korea.
  • North Korea was mainly helped by China and the
    Soviet Union while South Korea had help from the
    UN and mainly America.

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33
The Arms Race
  • In early 1950s the U.S. and Soviet Union were in
    a costly race to build the worlds most powerful
    weapons.
  • Many people feared that a war involving nuclear
    weapons might end all life on the earth.
  • Some families built bomb shelters.
  • People were afraid of the Soviet Union.
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy tried to rid the country
    of people whether they were communists or not.
  • The word McCarthyism is used today to describe
    false accusations made to damage people because
    of the political beliefs.

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