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1960s Politics


Title: World War II Author: Jeremy Shumpert Last modified by: KIMBERLY_ZERBST Created Date: 3/13/2007 1:34:57 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1960s Politics

1960s Politics Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh Vietnam
Election of 1960
Election of 1960
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well
or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any
burden, meet any hardship, support any friend,
oppose any foe to assure the survival and the
success of liberty. And so, my fellow
Americans ask not what your country can do for
youask what you can do for your
country. Macho presidency
New Frontier
  • Convinced Congress to continue deficit spending
    to deal with recession (unemployment was at 6)
  • Pushed for higher minimum wage, increased Social
    Security benefits, and modest housing and
    educational programs
  • Congress defeated plans for federal aid to
    education, health insurance for the elderly, and
    programs to help migrant workers, unemployed
    youths, and urban commuters
  • Peace Corps addressed poverty in Third World
  • Alliance for Progress economic assistance to
    Latin America to prevent the spread of communism
  • Space Race

New Frontier
New Frontier
  • Began to address issues of poverty and race
    relations in 1963 (The Other America by Michael
    Harrington, 1962 and Black Like Me by John Howard
    Griffin, 1961)
  • African Americans had supplied Kennedys margin
    of victory in 1960 expected presidential actions
  • At first Kennedy was quiet on civil rights issues
    to win southern congressional support
  • Attorney General Robert Kennedy helped protesters
    when federal laws were violated
  • Increasing (televised) violence in South led
    Kennedy to act in 1963 publicly supported
    integration of schools and end of Jim Crow in

Kennedy Cold War
Cuba Fidel Castro
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Fiasco
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
Kennedy Cold War
  • Kennedy was criticized for brinkmanship policy
    and for not ousting Castro Cubans switched to
    Republican Party
  • Khrushchev was forced out of power in USSR
  • hot line established between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
  • Limited Test Ban Treaty, 1963

Tragedy in Dallas
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)
War on Poverty
  • Economic Opportunity Act, 1964
  • (Job Corps, Neighborhood Youth Corps, VISTA, Head
  • 1964 tax cut to spur economic growth
  • 1964 Civil Rights Act

Election of 1964
Election of 1964
Election of 1964
Election of 1964
  • Barry Goldwaters Conscience of a Conservative
  • Kevin Phillips The Emerging Republican Party
  • 1964 returns showed important shift in power to
    West and South rise of Sunbelt and conservatism

Great Society
Great Society
  • Johnsons domestic agenda resulted in Congress
    passing more than 206 bills in the areas of
    education, housing, poverty, health, civil
    rights, the environment, and consumer advocacy.
  • Child Health Improvement and Protection Act, 1968
  • Fair Housing Act of 1968
  • Executive Order 11246 (1965)
  • Robert Weaver, first black Cabinet member (1966)
  • Constance Baker Motley, first black female
    federal judge (1966)
  • Thurgood Marshall, first black Supreme Court
    justice (1967)

Warren Court
  • Warren Court rejected loyalty oaths, affirmed
    free speech, and affirmed church-state
    separation Engel v. Vitale (1962)
  • Warren Court forced reapportionment Baker v.
    Carr (1962)
  • Warren Court greatly increased the ability of
    accused criminals to defend themselves Mapp v.
    Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963),
    Escobedo v. Illinois (1964), Miranda v. Arizona

Legacy of Great Society
  • In 1960, 20 of population (40 million) were
    classified as poor in 1969, only 12 (24
    million) were classified as poor
  • Great Society extended health insurance to poor
    and elderly and provided better housing for
    low-income families Number of families living in
    home without indoor plumbing fell from 20 to 11
  • Infant mortality rate among the poor fell by
    one-third between 1965 and 1975 By 1970 only 8
    of poor had never seen a doctor (20 in 1965)
  • African American median family income rose 53
    employment in professional fields and educational
    attainments also rose
  • Percentage of African Americans below the poverty
    line fell from 55 in 1960 to 27 in 1968

Legacy of Great Society
Legacy of Great Society
White Backlash
  • Ghetto rioting, rise of black militancy, and
    resentment over Great Society social legislation
    combined to produce a backlash among many whites
    acceleration of white flight
  • 1968 Republican candidate Richard Nixon appealed
    to silent majority and promised to restore law
    and order, eliminate wasteful federal
    antipoverty programs, and appoint strict
    constructionists to Supreme Court
  • As president, Nixon did away with Model Cities
    program and Office of Economic Opportunity urged
    Congress not to extend Voting Rights Act of 1965
    or to enforce Fair Housing Act
  • Appointed four conservatives to the Supreme Court
    including Chief Justice Warren Burger and later
    Chief Justice William Rehnquist Milliken v.
    Bradley (1974) and Bakke v. Regents of University
    of California (1978)

In the beginning
la mission civilisatrice Declaration of
Independence (1945) Ho Chi Minh Vietminh Franklin
Roosevelt Harry Truman Mao Zedong Joseph
Stalin 2.6 billion Dien Bien Phu (1954)
In the beginning
Geneva Agreements (1954) 17th Parallel Dwight D.
Eisenhower Ngo Dinh Diem because we know no one
better Diems the only boy we got out
there free elections 98.2 percent strategic
hamlet program Vietcong Ho Chi Minh Trail
Kennedy Vietnam
flexible response Conventional
counterinsurgency forces as well nuclear
response Special Forces (Green Berets) American
advisors 1961 3205 advisors 1962 11,300
advisors 1963 16,300 advisors save South
Kennedy Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem Buddhist monk protests Madame Nhu
barbecues American reporters isolation and
paranoia November 1, 1963 Kennedy
assassination De-escalation? Mekong Delta
Johnson Vietnam
Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) domino theory nail
coonskin to the wall Election of 1964 Gulf of
Tonkin incidents U.S.S. Maddox, 1964 Gulf of
Tonkin Resolution
Lyndons War
He made appointments, approved promotions,
reviewed troop requests, determined deployments,
selected bombing targets, and restricted aircraft
sorties. Night after night, wearing a dressing
gown and carrying a flashlight, he would descend
into the White House basement situation room to
monitor the conduct of the conflict often, too,
he would doze by his bedside telephone, waiting
to hear the outcome of a mission to rescue one of
my pilots shot down over Haiphong or Vinh or
Thai Nguyen. It was his war.
Lyndons War
  • Succession of unstable military dictators in
    South Vietnam
  • Johnsons advisors were divided
  • SecDefense Robert McNamara and SecState Dean Rusk
    wanted a more aggressive military presence in
    Vietnam including more ground troops
  • George Ball believed United States was making
    same mistake as the French Once on the tigers
    back, we cannot be sure of picking the place to
  • Johnson chose to escalate the war

Lyndons War
  • February 1965 Vietcong attacked an American
    base, killing several American soldiers
  • Between 1965 and 1973, American pilots flew more
    than 526,000 sorties and dropped 6,162,000 tons
    of bombs on enemy targets (3x the total amount of
    bombs dropped by all belligerent countries in
    World War II)
  • Bombings had no harmful effects on North
    Vietnamese morale and actually increased support
    for communist regime undermined U.S.
    counterinsurgency efforts in South Vietnam

Lyndons War
  • Massive use of air power actually Bombing raids
    killed enemies and civilians napalm, Agent
  • Larger air war led to escalation of ground troops
    under command of General William Westmoreland
  • 1965 184,300 troops 636 killed
  • 1966 385,300 troops 6644 killed
  • 1967 485,600 troops 16,021 killed
  • 1968 536,000 troops 30,610 killed

Lyndons War
Lyndons War
  • Search-and-destroy missions displaced South
    Vietnamese 3 million refugees by 1967

Tet Offensive
Loyalty to the party line William
Westmoreland Tet Offensive Saigon, Hue Walter
Cronkite credibility gap Eugene McCarthy Robert
Kennedy Pete Seeger March 31, 1968
Fall of Johnson
Modus operandi Duplicity Should have called up
reserves and National Guradsmen and pushed for
higher taxes Slow, steady escalation Dissatisfacti
on surfaced first with the young who were being
asked to fight and die for the cause
Fighting in the Jungle
Vietcong were everywhere Vietcong tunnel system I
I smoke-in hearts and minds
Fighting in the Jungle
My Lai Massacre
Fighting in the Jungle
Desertion and AWOL rates skyrocketed lowered
morale 1966 14.9/57.2 per thousand 1971
73.5/176.9 per thousand fragging 1101
officers Terrain, weather
Student Protests at Home
Students for a Democratic Society
(SDS) doves Eugene McCarthy Robert Kennedy
(RFK) Assassination
Election of 1968
Election of 1968
Election of 1968
Richard Nixon, 1969-1973
Henry Kissinger
peace with honor madman theory Nixon
Doctrine Vietnamization Nguyen Van
Thieu ARVN Secret bombings of Cambodia Ho Chi
Minh Trail Invasion of Cambodia April 30, 1970
Kent State Massacre
By 1972, Vietnamization failed to end the
war U.S. Invasion of Cambodia and S. Vietnamese
invasion of Laos Only 70,000 American troops
remained in S. Vietnam in 1973
A Decent Interval
Sino-Soviet Rift ping-pong diplomacy Nixons
China visit, 1972 the vastest ocean in the
world, twenty-five years of no communication Leon
id Brezhnev Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of
Election of 1972
End of New Deal Coalition
End of Vietnam War
Operation LINEBACKER II Christmas
bombings Paris Peace Conference January 27,
1973 cease-fire 58,000 Americans, over 2 million
Vietnamese killed
End of Vietnam War
South Vietnam has gained the right to determine
its own future Let us be proud that America did
not settle for a peace that would have betrayed
our ally that would have ended the war for us
but continued the war for the fifty million
people of Indochina.
End of Vietnam War
I could not stomach it, so nauseating was its
hypocrisy and self-delusion there is no reason
why they the Communists should stop now I
give them a couple of years before they invade
the South. Nguyen Cao Ky
Fall of Saigon, 1975
Fall of Saigon, 1975
Legacy of Vietnam War
Returning veterans faced hostility reports of
drug use and fragging First Blood (1982) Taxi
Driver (1976) Apocalypse Now (1979) Magnum,
P.I., The A-Team, and Airwolf
Legacy of Vietnam War
1.5 million Refugees Reconstruction in
Vietnam Cambodia Khmer Rouge, 1978 Vietnam,
1986 POW-MIA diplomatic recognition, 1995
Legacy of Vietnam War
  • Vietnam War left a divided America
  • Effectively neutralized the Great Society
  • End of the imperial presidency
  • Abolition of the military draft
  • War Powers Act of 1973
  • Caused U.S. leaders to revaluate nature of
  • Increased media, public cynicism of government
    and leaders
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