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The Early Cold War

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Cold War The Early Years – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Cold War


1
Cold War The Early Years
2
The Ideological Struggle
Soviet Eastern Bloc NationsIron Curtain
US the Western Democracies
GOAL ? spread world-wide Communism
GOAL ? Containment of Communism the eventual
collapse of the Communist world.
  • METHODS
  • Espionage KGB vs. CIA
  • Arms Race nuclear escalation
  • Ideological Competition
  • Economic Aid

3
Cold War Strategies
Foreign Aid Espionage Multinational Alliances
Win allies by providing them with money Fear of the enemy gaining the advantage, so they spied on each other Gaining support of other nations through NATO and the Warsaw Pact
Propaganda Brinkmanship Surrogate War
Used to win support overseas Going to the Brink of war to make the other side back down Fighting indirectly through other countrys wars.
4
Post-War Germany
Germany was divided among the allies. Divided
into two pieces, Eastern Germany (Communist)
West Germany (Democracy)
5
  • The world became divided into two camps,
    democracies versus communist nations (Bi-polar)
  • Non-aligned Nations (Egypt, India) tried to play
    both sides off each other
  • Non-aligned nations were usually in the Third
    World former colonies

6
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952 Greece Turkey
  • 1955 West Germany
  • 1983 Spain

7
Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Romania

8
The Iron Curtain
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
9
Truman Doctrine 1947
  • The U. S. will support people who are resisting
    Communist takeovers
  • aka We will help you fight the dirty red
    commies
  • We must assist free peoples to work out their
    own destinies in their own way.

10
Domino Theory
  • Theory of Democratic Governments
  • Believed if one nation became Communist, its
    neighbors would follow.

11
Marshall Plan 1948
  1. European Recovery Program.
  2. The U. S. should provide aid to all European
    nations that need it. This move is not against
    any country or doctrine, but against hunger,
    poverty, desperation, and chaos.
  3. ACTUALLYTO STOP THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM!
  4. 12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
    extended to Eastern Europe USSR, but this was
    rejected.

12
Berlin CrisisFirst Showdown of the Cold War
  • USSR tries to cut off all of Berlin from the West
  • US and British planes drop supplies to West
  • The Soviets backed down
  • 1961 - the Soviets began building a wall to
    prevent migration to the West. Berlin was split
    in two.

13
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
14
The Arms Race
  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in
    1949.
  • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

15
  • During the Cold War, the U.S.S.R and the U.S.
    followed a policy of Mutual Assured Destruction
    (MAD).

I guess it made sense at the time.
MAD military strategy in which a full scale
use of nuclear weapons by one of the opposing
powers would result in the destruction of both.
The U.S. and U.S.S.R had enough nuclear bombs to
destroy the world about 400 times.
16
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend
on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you
don't like us, don't accept our invitations,
and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side. We
will bury you. -- 1956
De-Stalinization Program
17
Maos Revolution 1949
Who lost China? A 2nd Power!
18
The Korean War A Police Action (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung
Syngman Rhee
Domino Theory
19
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
20
The Hungarian Uprising 1956
Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister
  • Promised free elections.
  • This could lead to the end of communist rule in
    Hungary.

21
Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in spacethey
have the technological edge!
22
Nixon-KhrushchevKitchen Debate(1959)
Cold War ---gt Tensions
lt--- Technology Affluence
23
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down
over Soviet airspace.
24
Paris, 1961
Khrushchev JFK meet to discuss Berlin and
nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that
JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be
controlled.
25
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
CheckpointCharlie
26
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them!
27
Castros Cuba
  • 1950s- Cuba ruled by an unpopular dictator,
    Batista- who the U.S. supported.
  • Cuban resentment led to an overthrow led by Fidel
    Castro.

28
  • Castro ruled Cuba harshly
  • Suspended elections
  • Jailed/Executed opponents
  • Censored press
  • Took over U.S. sugar mills located in Cuba.
  • U.S. ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba.
  • Castro asks for assistance for Soviet Union.

29
Khrushchev Embraces Castro,1961
30
  • 1960- CIA begins to train anti-Castro Cuban
    exiles.
  • April 1961- Exiles invade Cuba landing at the Bay
    of Pigs hoping that fellow Cubans join them in
    regaining Cuba.

31
Bay of Pigs (1961)
What do you think happens?
32
  • President Kennedy withdraws air support for the
    Cubans
  • Believes the U.S. is becoming too involved.
  • Why would this matter?
  • Was if fair to do this to the exiles without
    their knowledge?
  • Castros forces crushed the invaders within two
    days.

33
  • U.S. failure at the Bay of Pigs convinced
    Khrushchev that the U.S. could not resist Soviet
    expansion into Latin America.
  • July 1962- Khrushchev began to secretly build
    missiles sites in Cuba.
  • October 1962- U.S. spy planes discovered 42
    missile sites in Cuba.
  • Just 90 miles south of Florida

34
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
35
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and
the other man blinked!
36
  • Kennedy demands the removal of the Soviet
    Missiles.
  • He demands a naval blockage of Cuba to prevent
    more installing of Soviet missiles.

37
  • Meanwhile in the country of Turkey, right outside
    of the Soviet Union, the United States had
    missiles pointed toward Moscow, the Soviets
    capital.
  • This was the Soviets way to play the Cold War
    fair.
  • October 22nd-Preparations were made for an air
    attack on the missile sites.
  • How do you think the American people felt during
    this crisis?

38
  • On October 26th Kennedy received a message from
    the Soviet Premier Khrushchev implying that the
    Soviets would remove the missile bases as long
    as America didnt invade Cuba.
  • President Kennedy agreed.
  • Was it fair for the Soviets to have to remove
    their nuclear weapons, but the United States
    didnt have to remove their missiles from Turkey?

39
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
40
Vietnam War 1965-1973
41
Prague Spring (1968)
Former Czech President, Alexander
Dubcek Communism with a human face!
42
Prague Spring Dashed!
Dissidents/playwrights arrested like Vaclav
Havelfuture president of a free Czech Republic.
43
The End of Empires
  • Europe is in a big debt!
  • Most former colonies establish independence. For
    example
  • India 1947
  • Palestine 1948
  • Kenya ? Mau Mau uprising - 1955
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