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Museum Entrance


The Fall of the Soviet Union Gorbachev Putin Visit the Timeline Gorbachev Yeltsin USSR The Fall MAPS Museum Entrance Welcome to the Lobby – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Museum Entrance

Museum Entrance
The Fall of the Soviet Union GorbachevPutin
Visit the Timeline
The Fall
Welcome to the Lobby
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of Soviet
Union 1986 Oil prices fall to almost half of
their 1985 average, and stay low for the rest of
the decade. Soviet oil production falls
steeply. 1986 Gorbachev ends economic aid to
Soviet satellites 1989 Soviet troops withdraw
from Afghanistan (15,000 dead and missing, over
400,000 incapacitated by disease or serious
illness). 1989 Solidarity movement in Poland
wins congressional elections next year, its
leader, Lech Walesa, won the Presidency. 1990
March, the East German communist party loses in
congressional elections, and in October,
re-unites with West Germany. 1990 Soviet Union
passes a law allowing republics to break away
with a 2/3 majority in a referendum. 1990 June,
Boris Yeltsin (Russian President) leads its
congress to declare its sovereignty over Russia
1990 August, a coup led by military hardliners
attempts to seize power in Moscow to stop the
decline of the USSR and Gorbachevs
giveaway of control. Coup leaders, however, are
arrested and Yeltsin replaces regional leaders
who supported it. 1991 USSR dissolved, and form
the Commonwealth of Independent States with
Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. 1991 Warsaw Pact
is dissolved. 2000 March - Putin elected
president. 2000 August - Kursk nuclear
submarine sinks in the Barents Sea with the loss
of all its crew. 2001 July - Friendship treaty
signed with People's Republic of China during
Chinese President Jiang Zemin's visit to Moscow.
2002January - Russia's last independent
national TV station, TV-6, is forced by the
authorities to stop broadcasting, sparking fresh
concerns about free speech. 2002 May
Russia and the USA announce a new agreement on
strategic nuclear weapons reduction. The two
sides are to cut their nuclear
arsenals from over 6,000 missiles apiece to about
2,000 each in the next 10 years. 2002 Russian
and NATO foreign ministers agree on the
establishment of the NATO-Russia Council.
Back to Lobby
5 points Plan
Back to Lobby
Continued Problems
Back to Lobby
The Fall
Slow Reforms
Back to Lobby
The Fall
The End
Back to Lobby
Eastern Bloc
Gorbachevs REFORMS
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Yelstins POLICY
No BrezhnevDoctrine
ReformComm Party
Back to Room 1
Gorbachev Revolution
Insert Artifact Picture Here
Mikhail Gorbachev, came to power in 1985 as the
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union (CPSU). He recognized that the
Soviet Union could not remain politically and
economically isolated and that the Soviet system
had to be changed if it was to survive. As the
nationalistic spirit spread to other Soviet
republics, Gorbachev sought to end the growing
conflict. He began negotiating a new Treaty of
Union with the leaders of the republics. On the
eve of signing the treaty, in August 1991,
Communist hard-liners staged a coup detat.
The conspirators sought to return the Soviet
Union to its condition before Gorbachev, when the
Communist government was in control and the army
was used to put down independence movements
Back to Room 1
Dissolution of USSR
  • The coup lacked popular support and quickly
  • The Communist Party, which had supported the
    coup, was completely discredited
  • Gorbachev recognized the independence of
    Lithuania and the other Baltic States
  • In December of 1991, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine
    declared independence and formed the new
    Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)
  • Other former republics soon joined
  • Only the Baltic states and Georgia refused to join

Back to Room 1
Gorbachev 5 POINTS
  • The key pieces to Gorbachev's plan for the
    survival of the Soviet Union were a series of
  • Glasnost (openness) greater freedom of
  • Perestroika (restructuring) decentralization of
    the Soviet economy with gradual market reforms
  • Renunciation of the Brezhnev Doctrine (armed
    intervention where socialism was threatened) and
    the pursuit of arms control agreements
  • Reform of the KGB (secret service)
  • Reform of the Communist Party
  • Gorbachev knew that the Soviet Union would have
    to change if it was to survive.
  • Central planning in a modern industrial economy
    brought many inefficiencies.
  • The factory management system provided little
    incentive to make technological improvements and
    every incentive to hide factory capacities to
    ensure low quotas
  • The socialist farm system was inefficient there
    were poor worker incentives and storage and
    transportation problems.
  • The Soviet State could no longer afford the high
    defense spending that accompanied the Cold War.

Back to Room 1
Boris Yeltsin
  • Not exactly democratic
  • Economy got worse (hyperinflation) and poverty
  • Coup attempts try to get rid of him
  • Rise of communist opposition parties
  • He had his opponents who were gathered in the
    Parliament building fired on by Russian tanks
  • Dec. 1994 he orders the invasion of the break
    away province of Chechnya
  • Reelected in 1996 barely winning a run off with
    the Communist opposition leader
  • Opposed NATO intervention in Yugoslavia he and
    the Americans also disagreed on the Chechnya
  • Resigned at the end of 1999 allegations of
    alcoholism poor health
  • Pushes privatization but the economy gets worse
    and unemployment rises.

Back to Room 2
Yeltsins Rise
  • As Mikhail Gorbachev became less popular, many
    Soviet citizens looked to Boris Yeltsin for
  • Yeltsin criticized Gorbachevs reforms and
  • Boris Yeltsin implemented reforms to solve
    Russias economic problems
  • Introduction of a free market system
  • Ended price controls on most goods
  • Began to privatize state-owned businesses

Back to Room 2
Problems Continue
  • Despite Yeltsins reforms, the Russian economy
    failed to improve
  • High unemployment
  • Poor healthcare
  • Malnutrition and food shortages
  • inflation
  • Yeltsins reforms caused demands for democracy
    and independence in Eastern Europe.
  • Poland, East Germany, Romania, and Bulgaria break
    away from Soviet control.

Back to Room 2
Vladimir Putin
  • KGB agent during Soviet era
  • Prime Minister Acting President (Aug. 1999
    May 2000)
  • Elected President in May 2000 and reelected in
  • Has enjoyed improving economic conditions and
    improved political stability in Russia (Times
    Person of the Year 07)
  • Very wealthy mainly from ownership in oil
  • Putin has made Russia very powerful once again
    with his consolidation of Russias oil resources
  • Began limiting democratic freedoms in the name of
    combating terrorism
  • 14 journalists, who have been critical of Putins
    government, have died under questionable
  • Cracked down on civil society and freedom of

Back to Room 3
Chart of Fall
  • Effects
  • Formation of the Commonwealth of Independent
  • Loss of role as superpower
  • Economic hardships
  • Conflicts between communist and democratic
  • Minority revolts
  • Causes
  • Leadership of Gorbachev
  • Glasnost (democratic ideas)
  • Perestroika (reshaping of the government and
  • Economic problems
  • Freedom movement

Back to Room 3
Reforms Slow-Gorbachev
The gradual market reforms and decentralization
of the economy (perestroika) were too slow and
failed to keep pace with the crisis and his
people's demands. The Soviet Union was
suffering a deterioration of economic and social
conditions and a fall in the GNP. His attempts
to reform the Communist Party were a failure.
Change was too slow to keep pace with events and
he was continually hampered by his need to give
in to the hard-liners in order to retain power.
As communism collapsed in Eastern Europe, reform
of communism in the Soviet Union became unlikely.

Back to Room 3
Political Cartoon
Back to Room 4
Warsaw Pact treaty signed in 1945 that formed an
alliance of the Eastern European countries behind
the Iron Curtain USSR, Albania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland,
and Romania The Berlin Wall A wall constructed
between (communist) East and (capitalist) West
Berlin with guards who fired on any who tried to
escape from East Berlin to West Berlin. This wall
served as a symbol of the conflict between
communist and noncommunist powers. Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of
the Eastern European countries behind the Iron
Curtain USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and
Romania Brezhnev Doctrine Policy proclaimed in
1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the
right to intervene in any Socialist country
whenever it determined there was a need. Cold
War The ideological struggle between communism
(Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for
world influence. Collapse of the Soviet German
Reunification process in which German Democratic
Republic (East Germany) joined Federal Republic
of Germany (West Germany) and Berlin was united
into a single city. Glasnost Policy of openness
initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided
increased opportunities for freedom of speech,
association and the press in the Soviet
Union. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an alliance made to defend one another if they
were attacked by any other country US, England,
France, Canada, Western European
countries Perestroika a policy initiated by
Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of
the social and economic status quo in communist
Russia towards a market based economy and
society Solidarity Polish trade union created in
1980 to protest working conditions and political
repression. It began the nationalist opposition
to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of
communism in eastern Europe.
Back to Room 4
Soviet Domain Ended
  • The renunciation of the Brezhnev Doctrine (armed
    intervention in support of socialism) released
    the Eastern European states from Soviet
  • The communist rulers of these states could not
    survive without the support of the Soviet Union.

The Brezhnev Doctrine was articulated in 1968
when the Soviet army occupied Czechoslovakia to
end the Prague Spring, an attempt by Alexander
Dubcek to build socialism with a human face.
Back to Room 4