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CHAPTER 4 QUESTIONS OF VALUES AND ETHICS

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... to life-and-death issues Ethical Theories Deontological Teleological Principalism Ethical Principles Autonomy Nonmaleficence Beneficence Justice Fidelity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 4 QUESTIONS OF VALUES AND ETHICS


1
CHAPTER 4QUESTIONS OF VALUES AND ETHICS
2
INTRODUCTION
3
In the beginning
  • There were no antibiotics
  • There were no ICUs
  • There were no CT scanners and MRIs
  • There were just physicians and nurses who cared
    for people in sickness and in health

4
1960s
  • Technological advances allowed for the
    development of intensive care units
  • New biomedical developments
  • Advances in surgical techniques, such as open
    heart surgery

5
New Questions
  • The advances created new questions for
    health-care professionals regarding the use of
    technology
  • The concepts of life and death

6
Bioethics
  • A subdiscipline of ethics
  • The study of medical morality

7
Concepts of Ethics
  • Values
  • Belief systems
  • Morality

8
Value Systems
  • A set of related values
  • Intrinsic values
  • Extrinsic values
  • Personal values
  • Professional values

9
Value Formation
  • Values are learned
  • Values change with maturity and experience
  • The number of values an individual holds is not
    as important as what values they consider
    important

10
Values Clarification
  • Choosing
  • Prizing
  • Acting

11
Belief Systems
  • These are organized ways of thinking about why
    people exist within the universe
  • Their purpose is to explain such concepts as
  • Life and death
  • Good and evil
  • Health and illness

12
ETHICS AND MORALS
13
Morals
  • An individuals own code for acceptable behavior
  • They arise from an individuals conscience
  • They act as a guide for individual behavior
  • Learned

14
Ethics
  • Ethics deals with the rightness or wrongness
    of human behavior
  • Concerned with the motivation behind the behavior
  • Bioethics is the application of these principles
    to life-and-death issues

15
Ethical Theories
  • Deontological
  • Teleological
  • Principalism

16
Ethical Principles
  • Autonomy
  • Nonmaleficence
  • Beneficence
  • Justice
  • Fidelity
  • Confidentiality
  • Veracity
  • Accountability

17
Autonomy
  • The freedom to make decisions about oneself
  • Nurses need to respect clients rights to make
    choices about health care

18
Nonmaleficence
  • Requires that no harm be caused to an individual,
    either unintentionally or deliberately
  • This principle requires nurses to protect
    individuals who are unable to protect themselves

19
Beneficence
  • This principle means doing good for others
  • Nurses need to assist clients in meeting all
    their needs
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Social

20
Justice
  • Every individual must be treated equally
  • This requires nurses to be nonjudgmental

21
Fidelity
  • Loyalty
  • The promise to fulfill all commitments
  • The basis of accountability

22
Confidentiality
  • Anything stated to nurses or health-care
    providers by clients must remain confidential
  • The only times this principle may be violated
    are
  • If clients may indicate harm to themselves or
    others
  • If the client gives permission for the
    information to be shared

23
Veracity
  • This principle implies truthfulness
  • Nurses need to be truthful to their clients
  • Veracity is an important component of building
    trusting relationships

24
Accountability
  • Individuals need to be responsible for their own
    actions
  • Nurses are accountable to themselves and to their
    colleagues

25
Ethical Codes
  • These are formal statements of the rules of
    behavior for a particular group of individuals
  • Ethical codes are dynamic
  • Most professions have a code of ethics to guide
    professional behavior

26
Virtue Ethics
  • Focus on virtues or moral character
  • View helping others as charitable or benevolent

27
Organizational Ethics
  • Focus on the workplace
  • Ethical culture makes a difference
  • Senior leadership must promote an ethical culture

28
Ethical Dilemmas
  • Occur when a problem exists between ethical
    principles
  • Deciding in favor of one principle usually
    violates another
  • Both sides have goodness and badness
    associated with them

29
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
30
Using the Nursing Process
  • Assessment
  • Planning
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

31
Approach to Ethical Dilemma
32
Current Ethical Issues
33
Issues to Consider
  • Assisted suicide
  • Technology issues
  • Gene therapies
  • Designer babies
  • Organizational climate

34
Conclusion
  • An issue is not an ethical issue for the nurse
    unless he or she has been asked
  • Always gather the facts prior to decision-making
  • Consider your personal beliefs and values
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