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ACIDS, BASES,

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ACIDS, BASES, & SALTS Properties of Acids sour taste electrolytes: - aqueous solns conduct electric current react with bases to form water and salt (neutralization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ACIDS, BASES,


1
ACIDS, BASES, SALTS
2
Properties of Acids
  • sour taste
  • electrolytes
  • - aqueous solns conduct electric current
  • react with bases to form water and salt
    (neutralization reaction)
  • react with most metals to produce H2(g)
  • acids turn litmus paper red

3
Electrolyte
  • substance that dissolves in H2O to produce soln
    that conducts electric current
  • acids, bases, salts are electrolytes form
    ions in H2O
  • HCl(s) ? H1(aq) Cl-1(aq)
  • NaOH(s) ? Na1(aq) OH-1(aq)
  • NaCl(s) ? Na1(aq) Cl-1(aq)

4
Which metals react with acids?
  • See Table J
  • All metals above H2 react with acids
  • Cu, Ag, and Au do not react with acids

5
2HCl Mg ? MgCl2 H2
  • Mg above H2 so reaction proceeds
  • single replacement reaction occurs

6
Properties of Bases
  1. bitter taste
  2. slippery or soapy feeling
  3. Electrolytes
  4. react with acids to produce water and salt
  5. bases turn litmus paper blue

7
Formula of Acid
  • Format HX
  • where X nonmetal (F, Cl, Br, I)
  • or
  • X negative polyatomic ion
  • some acids have 2 or 3 Hs
  • Ex HF, H2S, H3PO4

8
Formula of Base
  • Format MOH
  • where M is metal
  • Ex NaOH, Ca(OH)2
  • exception NH3 and NH41
  • CH3OH is NOT a base. WHY?

9
Identify the Electrolytes
  • NaCl
  • C2H5OH
  • H2SO4
  • NaOH
  • C6H12O6
  • CaI2
  • HF
  • Mg(OH)2
  • C3H7OH
  • CCl4
  • HNO3
  • C5H12
  • K3PO4
  • CH3OCH3
  • LiOH
  • HI
  • (NH4)2SO4
  • C12H22O11

10
Acid, Base, or Neutral?
  • all H2O contains some H1 and some OH-1 ions
  • pure H2O concentrations very low
  • neutral solution H1 OH-1
  • acidic solution H1 gt OH-1
  • basic solution OH-1 gt H1

11
Water self-ionization
  • H2O(l) H2O(l) ? H3O1(aq) OH-1(aq)
  • H3O1 hydronium ion
  • OH-1 hydroxide ion
  • H2O(l) ? H1(aq) OH-1(aq)
  • H1 and H3O1 used interchangeably
  • H1 called proton or hydrogen ion

12
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13
Arrhenius Acid
  • substance that contains hydrogen ionizes to
    produce H1 ions in (aq) soln
  • HCl(g) ? H1(aq) Cl-1(aq)
  • HNO3 ? H1(aq) NO3-1(aq)

14
Arrhenius Base
  • substance that contains hydroxide group ionizes
    to produce OH-1 ions in (aq) soln
  • NaOH(s) ? Na1(aq) OH-1(aq)

15
Arrhenius Salt
  • electrolyte where H1 not only () ion and OH-1
    not only (-) ion formed in aqueous solution
  • Ex NaCl, CaBr2,KNO3, NH4I

16
Salts in Water (ionic compounds)
  • NaCl(s) ? Na1(aq) Cl-1(aq)
  • CaBr2(s) ? Ca2(aq) 2Br-1(aq)
  • KNO3(s) ? K1(aq) NO3-1(aq)
  • NH4I(s) ? NH41(aq) I-1(aq)

17
Arrhenius Model has limitations
  • Dont always use H2O as solvent
  • Arrhenius model only applies when H2O is solvent
  • Doesnt explain all cases
  • NH3 (base) doesnt contain OH-1 but it produces
    OH-1
  • NH3(g) ? NH41(aq) OH-1(aq)

18
Alternate Theory Bronsted-Lowry
  • Acid is a proton donor
  • All Arrhenius acids Bronsted-Lowry Acids
  • H1
  • HX(g) H2O(l) ? H3O1 X-1
  • H1 forms molecule-ion bond with water molecule ?
    H3O1 (hydronium ion)

19
Bronsted-Lowry Acids
H1
  • HCl H2O ? H3O1 Cl-1
  • HNO3 H2O ? H3O1 NO3-1
  • H2SO4 H2O ? H3O1 HSO4-1
  • HSO4-1 H2O ? H3O1 SO4-2

H1
H1
H1
20
Bronsted-Lowry Base
  • Base is proton acceptor
  • OH-1 is base
  • H1 OH-1 ? H2O
  • not restricted to aqueous solution
  • NH3 H2O ? NH41 OH-1
  • NH3 is a base!

21
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22
Amphoteric
  • substance that acts as both acid base
  • H2O is amphoteric
  • HX(g) H2O(l) ? H3O1 X-1
  • (base)
  • NH3 H2O ? NH41 OH-1
  • (acid)

23
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24
Naming Acids Bases
25
Naming Binary Acids
  • Hydro stem of nonmetal ic
  • HF ?
  • HCl ?
  • H2S ?

Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrosulfic acid
26
Naming Ternary Acids
  • Name derived from polyatomic anion (see Table E)
  • Replace ite with ous , add acid
  • HNO2 is nitrous acid
  • Replace ate with ic, add acid
  • HNO3 is nitric acid

27
Ternary Acids
  • polyatomics with S and P, make stem long again
  • H3PO4 phosphoric acid, not phosphic acid
  • H2SO4 sulfuric acid, not sulfic acid
  • H2SO3 sulfurous acid, not sulfous acid
  • SEE TABLE K

28
Naming Bases
  • Name the metal hydroxide
  • NaOH ?
  • Ca(OH)2 ?
  • Mg(OH)2 ?

Sodium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
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