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Title: The%20Vitamins:

Chapter 7
  • The Vitamins
  • A Functional Approach

Ask Yourself
  • True or False?
  • The most important role that vitamins play is
    providing energy.
  • You cant overdose on vitamins, because the body
    excretes them in the urine.
  • Serving for serving, fruits and vegetables tend
    to be the richest sources of vitamins.
  • Vitamin D is also known as the sunshine vitamin
    because the body can make vitamin D with the help
    of sunlight.
  • Vitamin C supplements prevent colds.

Ask Yourself
  1. Several major public health associations
    recommend that all adults take antioxidant
  2. Fresh vegetables contain more vitamins than
    frozen vegetables.
  3. Phytochemicals are beneficial nonnutrient
    substances found in fruits, vegetables, and whole
  4. In general, nutrients are absorbed equally as
    well from foods as from supplements.
  5. Maintaining a healthy weight may be one of the
    most important ways to protect against cancer.

Turning Back the Clock
Many vitamin deficiency diseases have been
eliminated today with the discovery of vitamins.
  • Scurvy
  • The vitamin C deficiency disease
    characterized by bleeding gums, tooth loss, and
    even death in severe cases.
  • Rickets
  • A disease that occurs in children as a result
    of vitamin D deficiency and that is characterized
    by abnormal growth of bone, which in turn leads
    to bowed legs and an outward-bowed chest.
  • Pellagra
  • Niacin deficiency characterized by diarrhea,
    inflammation of the skin, and, in severe cases,
    mental disorders and death.

The Vitamins
  • Vitamin
  • A potent, indispensable compound that performs
    various bodily functions that promote growth and
    reproduction and maintain health.
  • Vitamins are organic, meaning that they contain
    or are related to carbon compounds.
  • Contrary to popular belief, vitamins do not
    supply calories.
  • They are essential to helping the body make use
    of the calories consumed via foods.

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Two Classifications of Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
  • Water-soluble vitamins act as coenzymes.
  • Coenzymes
  • Enzyme helpers small molecules that interact
    with enzymes and enable them to do their work.
  • Water-soluble vitamins are fragile
  • Can be washed out or destroyed during food
    storage, processing and preparation.

Without the coenzyme, compounds A and B dont
respond to the enzyme.
With the coenzyme in place, A and B are attracted
to the active side on the enzyme, and they react.
The reaction is completed. A new product, AB, has
Been formed.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • ADEK
  • Absorbed from the digestive tract with the aid of
    fats in the diet and bile produced by the liver.
  • Transported by protein carriers in the
  • Stored in the liver and body fat
  • Do not need to consume daily.

Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Enhance the immune system
  • Limit free-radical formation
  • Destroy free radicals and prevent oxidative
    damage to cells
  • Reduce inflammation in blood vessel walls
  • Vitamin C defends body cells and tissues such as
    skin, lungs, and blood.
  • Vitamin E and beta-carotene defend the bodys
    lipids such as cell membranes and lipoproteins.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Some chemical reactions in the body involve the
    use of oxygen.
  • These reactions create toxic compounds called
    free radicals.
  • These free radicals contribute to cell damage and
    the development of chronic diseases such as
    cancer and heart disease.

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Chronic disease (heart disease, cancer) and aging
Damage cell membrane lipids and proteins
Damage protein enzymes
Free Radicals
Alter cellular DNA
Oxidize blood cholesterol
Environmental pollution
Body processes
The Antioxidant Team
Free Radicals
Neutralize free radicals
The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Antioxidant nutrients are the bodys defense
    against free radical damage.
  • Antioxidant nutrients include
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • The carotenoidsbeta-carotene
  • Selenium - found in an enzyme that helps to fight
    free radicals (Chapter 8)

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Vitamin C
  • Blocks free radical formation and along with
    vitamin E may reduce heart disease and cancer.
  • Is a powerful scavenger of air pollutants.
  • Required for the production and maintenance of
  • Boosts the bodys ability to fight infections.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Vitamin C
  • Potential role as a chronic-disease fighter stems
    from its workings as an antioxidant.
  • Antioxidant a substance, such as a vitamin, that
    is anti-oxygen that is, it helps to prevent
    damage done to the body as a result of chemical
    reactions that involve oxygen.
  • Its role in preventing the common cold is
  • Widespread in the food supply but deficiencies do

The Antioxidant Vitamins
Sources of Vitamin C
Vitamin C is widespread in the food supply.
Deficiencies arise both in infants not given a
source of vitamin C and in children and the
The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Vitamin E
  • Known as a vitamin in search of a disease.
  • Widespread in the food supply, and deficiencies
    of the nutrient are rare.
  • Performs a key role as an antioxidant in the
  • May protect membranes of the lungs, heart, brain,
    and other organs against pollutants and other
    environmental hazards.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Vitamin E
  • People who run the risk of deficiency
  • Premature infants who are born before vitamin E
    is transferred to them from their mothers.
  • Those who cannot absorb fats as a result of
  • Those with certain blood disorders.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • The Vitamin A Precursor Beta Carotene
  • Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoid
  • The carotenoids possess antioxidant properties.
  • May help prevent age-related macular degeneration
    and lower risk of cataracts.
  • Beta-carotene an orange pigment found in plants
    that is converted into vitamin A inside the body.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Vitamin A
  • One of the most versatile vitamins plays roles
    in several important body processes.
  • Best known function is in vision.
  • Night blindness accompanies deficiency
  • Helps to maintain healthy epithelial tissue.
  • Up to a years supply can be stored in the body,
    90 of it in the liver.

The Antioxidant Vitamins
  • Deficiency symptoms appear after your stores are
  • Consequences include blindness and reduced
    resistance to infection.
  • Toxicity can pose a hazard for those taking
    preformed vitamin A (supplements).
  • There is no toxicity risk for beta-carotene.

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The Antioxidant Vitamins
Sources of Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene
  • The major sources of vitamin A are almost all
    brightly colored hues of green, yellow, orange
    and red.
  • Vitamin A is measured in Retinol Activity
    Equivalents (RAE). This is a measure of both
    preformed vitamin A and beta-carotene in foods.

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • The body needs a continuous supply of water,
    oxygen, energy, and building materials.
  • Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells.
  • Blood carries away carbon dioxide and waste

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Folate is needed for formation and maintenance of
    healthy red blood cells.
  • Vitamin B12 is needed for formation of healthy
    red blood cells.
  • Vitamin B6 is needed for synthesis of hemoglobin,
    which carries oxygen in the blood.
  • Vitamin K is needed for blood clotting.

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Folate
  • Folic acid or folacin
  • Coenzyme with many functions in the body.
  • Important in the synthesis of DNA and the
    formation of red blood cells.
  • A deficiency makes the red blood cells misshapen
    and unable to carry sufficient oxygen...
  • Causing a certain kind of anemia.
  • Anemia any condition in which the blood is
    unable to deliver oxygen to the cells of the body.

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Folate and Birth Defects
  • Plays a crucial role in a healthy pregnancy.
  • Reduces the risk of bearing a baby with a type of
    birth defect called a neural tube defect.
  • Like spina bifida

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
Sources of Folate
The Food and Drug Administration has mandated
that all enriched grain products be fortified
with folic acid to improve intakes in the United
States population.
Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • B Vitamins and Heart Disease
  • Low intakes of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin
    B6 are linked to increased risk of heart attack
    or stroke.
  • Increased levels of homocysteine in blood.
  • Enhanced blood clot formation and damage to
    arterial walls.
  • Homocysteine may be toxic to the brain.

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Vitamin B12
  • Maintains the sheaths that surround and protect
    nerve fibers.
  • Works closely with folate, enabling it to
    manufacture red blood cells.
  • A vitamin B12 deficiency can prevent folate from
    building healthy red blood cells, resulting in
  • Treatment with folate will cure the anemia but
    mask the vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Vitamin B12
  • Deficiencies are unlikely for individuals who
    consume animal-based foods.
  • Some groups at risk of deficiency include
  • Strict vegetarians.
  • Those with a genetic defect that leaves the body
    unable to make a compound known as intrinsic
  • And those elderly who may develop atrophic

Vitamins for Healthy Blood
Sources of Vitamin B12
Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Vitamin B6
  • Functions as a coenzyme.
  • Helps make hemoglobin for red blood cells.
  • Plays a role in protein metabolism.
  • Requirements are proportional to protein intake.
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Weakness
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia

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Vitamins for Healthy Blood
Sources of Vitamin B6
Vitamins for Healthy Blood
  • Vitamin K
  • Key function its role in the blood-clotting
    system of the body.
  • Works with vitamin D to help regulate the calcium
    levels in the blood.
  • Is obtained both in the diet and via the
    intestinal bacteria, making deficiencies rare.
  • Newborn babies are the one group that is commonly
    susceptible to a vitamin K deficiency.
  • A babys digestive tract is free of bacteria
    until birth.

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Vitamins for Healthy Blood
Sources of Vitamin K
Color Your Plate with Vitamin Rich Foods
  • Shop at least once a week
  • Store most fruits and vegetables whole in the
  • Eat within a month of purchase
  • Cook in the least amount of water and for the
    shortest time

Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Bones are made up of a matrix of living tissue
    based on collagen, into which the crystals of
    bone minerals are deposited.
  • Calcium and phosphorus are the principle bone
    minerals in the matrix.
  • Bones undergo remodeling throughout life but peak
    bone mass is reached at about 30 years of age.
  • Vitamins essential for healthy bones
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin B12

Vitamins for Healthy Bones
Electron micrograph of healthy trabecular bone
Electron micrograph of trabecular bone affected
by osteoporosis
Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Bone Making and Maintenance Team
  • Vitamin D directs the team consisting of
  • Vitamins vitamin C and vitamin K
  • Hormones
  • Protein collagen
  • Minerals calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and
    fluoride (Chapter 8)

Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Vitamin D
  • Assists the absorption of dietary calcium.
  • Helps to make calcium and phosphorus available in
    the blood so these minerals can be deposited into
  • Acts much like a hormone, exerting influence on
    other organs like kidneys and the intestines.

Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Vitamin D
  • Regardless of dietary consumption, the body can
    synthesize vitamin D with the help of sunlight.
  • The liver makes a vitamin D precursor and with
    the help of the suns ultraviolet rays, it
    becomes an active form of vitamin D.

Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin
Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Needs can be met through diet or sun exposure.
  • Sun exposure of face, hands and arms for 5-15
    minutes several times per week will meet needs.
  • Deficiency risk includes
  • Living in northern climate.
  • Institutionalized or housebound elderly people.
  • Deficiency disease
  • In children, rickets.
  • In adults, osteomalacia.

Bones become soft, porous, and weak
Vitamins for Healthy Bones
Only a few foods contain vitamin D
Vitamins for Healthy Bones
  • Vitamin K
  • Works in conjunction with vitamin D to synthesize
    a bone protein that regulates the calcium levels
    in the blood.
  • Low levels have been associated with low bone
    mineral density and hip fracture in older women

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • When the body needs energy it breaks down
    glycogen to glucose, triglycerides to fatty acids
    glycerol, or protein to amino acids.
  • When the body does not need energy, it builds
    glycogen, body proteins, or body fat.
  • Many vitamins and minerals are essential for
    energy metabolism.

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Thiamin
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Vitamin B6
  • Folate
  • Vitamin B12
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Biotin

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Thiamin
  • One of the B vitamins.
  • Acts primarily as a coenzyme in reactions that
    release energy from carbohydrate.
  • Plays a crucial role in nerve processes
  • Beriberi
  • The thiamin deficiency disease, characterized
    by irregular heartbeat, paralysis, and extreme
    wasting of muscle tissue.

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
Sources of Thiamin
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Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Riboflavin
  • Also one of the B vitamins.
  • Acts as a coenzyme in energy-releasing reactions
    in the body.
  • Helps to prepare fatty acids and amino acids for
  • Deficiencies of the vitamin (rare), are
    characterized by severe skin problems, including
    painful cracks at the corners of the mouth a
    red, swollen tongue and teary or bloodshot eyes.

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
Sources of Riboflavin
Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Niacin
  • Also one of the B vitamins.
  • Also part of a coenzyme vital to obtaining
  • Recall that pellagra is the deficiency disease.

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Can be made from the amino acid tryptophan in the
  • 60 milligrams of tryptophan yield 1 milligram of
  • Thus, the DRI for niacin is expressed in niacin
    equivalents (NE).

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
Sources of Niacin
Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
  • Pantothenic acid and biotin
  • Both are B vitamins needed to synthesize
    coenzymes that are active in many body systems.
  • Biotin is required for cell growth, synthesis of
    DNA, and maintenance of blood glucose levels.
  • Both are widespread in foods, so people who eat a
    varied diet are not at risk for deficiencies.

Vitamins for Energy Metabolism
Sources of Biotin and Pantothenic Acid
Phytonutrients in Foods
  • Phytochemicals Physiologically active compounds
    found in plants that are not essential nutrients
    but that appear to help promote health and reduce
    risk for cancer, heart disease, and other
  • Also called phytonutrients.
  • phyto plant

Cruciferous vegetables, such as cauliflower,
broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, contain nutrients
and nonnutrients that protect against cancer.
Phytonutrients in Foods
  • Phytonutrients
  • Give plants their brilliant colors and distinct
  • Found in edible parts of plants including fruits,
    vegetables, whole grains.
  • They do not provide energy or building material.
  • Ongoing research indicates they act as powerful
    antioxidants, decreasing blood pressure
    cholesterol, preventing cataracts, reducing
    menopause symptoms risk for osteoporosis,
    slowing or reversing certain cancers.

Phytonutrients in Foods
  • Phytonutrients
  • Many foods contain numerous phytochemicals, each
    one acting on one or several mechanisms.
  • Antioxidant properties - protect against harmful
    cell damage.
  • Anticancer properties - preventing initiation and
    promotion of cancer.
  • Anti-estrogen properties - blocking action of
    estrogen and lowering risk of some cancers.
  • May protect against other diseases
  • Heart disease, eye disease, osteoporosis and

Phytonutrients in Foods
  • Optimizing Intake of Phytochemicals
  • Pure extracts in supplements are less effective
    than phytochemicals in whole food.
  • Absorption, metabolism, distribution, and
    function depends on the combination of
    phytochemicals and other substances naturally
    occurring in food.
  • Until more is known, it is best to follow
    recommendations of MyPlate for fruit, vegetables,
    whole grains, soy foods, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Choosing a Vitamin-Mineral Supplement
  • Remember most people should be able to get all
    needed nutrients from diet
  • Particular groups of people may need

Keep these points in mind when choosing a
  1. Remember that price is not an indication of
  2. Look for a supplement that contains both vitamins
    and minerals, with no more than 100 percent to
    150 percent of the recommended Daily Values for
  3. Buy products sold in childproof bottles or
    packages if you have children around.

Nutrition Cancer Prevention

Genetic and related risk factors (Total) 14
Family history of cancer 5 Perinatal
factors/growth 5 Reproductive factors 3
Prescription drugs/medical procedures 1
Lifestyle risk factors (Total) 77 Tobacco
use 30 Adult diet/obesity 30 Sedentary
lifestyle 5 Occupation/job-related factors
5 Alcohol 3 Socioeconomic status 3
Salt/food additives, and other
preservatives/contaminants 1
Environmental risk factors (Total) 9
Viruses/other biologic agents 5 Pollution
2 Ionizing/ultraviolet radiation 2
Cancer initiation Initiation by a carcinogen
causes cancerous alterations in previously
healthy body cells.
  • Examples of Carcinogens
  • A. Cancer initiation. Initiation by a carcinogen
    causes cancerous alterations in
  • previously healthy body cells.

Cancer initiation
Ultraviolet light/ radiation
Damaged cellular DNA and altered genetic material
Healthy body cells
Development of cancerous cells
Toxic environmental pollution/contaminants
Cancer promotion Cancer promoters enhance the
growth of abnormal cancerous cells.
B. Cancer promotion. Cancer promoters enhance the
growth of abnormal cancerous cells.
Cancer promotion
Cancer progression
Cancerous cells
Examples of Cancer Promoters
Ultraviolet light/radiation
Toxic environmental pollution/contaminants
Lack of physical activity and obesity
Excess dietary fat
Excess alcohol
Cellular repair Cancer antipromoters squelch
free radical damage and enhance the bodys
ability to repair damaged DNA strands.
C. Cellular repair. Cancer antipromoters squelch
free radical damage and enhance the bodys
ability to repair damaged DNA strands.
Cellular repair
Damaged cellular DNA and altered genetic material
Healthy body cells
Examples of Cancer Antipromoters
The antioxidant, fiber, and phytochemical team
Strong immune system and healthy body weight
Factors that Decrease or Increase Cancer Risk
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Nutrition Cancer Prevention
  • 1. Be as lean as possible without becoming
  • 2. Be physically active for at least 30 minutes
    every day.
  • 3. Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of
    energy-dense foods
  • 4. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits,
    whole grains, and legumes such as beans.
  • 5. Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef,
    pork, and lamb) and avoid processed meats.

Nutrition Cancer Prevention
  • 6. If you do drink alcohol, limit your
    consumption to no more than two drinks a day for
    men and one drink a day for women.
  • 7. Limit consumption of salty foods and foods
    processed with salt (sodium).
  • 8. Dont use supplements to protect against
  • 9. And always rememberdo not smoke or chew