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Sustainable Cities

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Title: Sustainable Cities


1
Chapter 23
  • Sustainable Cities

2
Chapter Overview Questions
  • How is the worlds population distributed between
    rural and urban areas, and what factors determine
    how urban areas develop?
  • What are the major resource and environmental
    problems of urban areas?
  • How do transportation systems shape urban areas
    and growth, and what are the advantages and
    disadvantages of various forms of transportation?

3
Chapter Overview Questions (contd)
  • What methods are used for planning and
    controlling urban growth?
  • How can cities be made more sustainable and more
    desirable places to live?

4
Updates Online
  • The latest references for topics covered in this
    section can be found at the book companion
    website. Log in to the books e-resources page at
    www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.
  • InfoTrac The Battle over Sprawl. Patrick Tucker.
    The Futurist, July-August 2006 v40 i4 p6(2).
  • InfoTrac Confronting a Pattern of Warped Growth.
    Lisa Prevost. The New York Times, July 16, 2006
    p11(L).
  • InfoTrac Battle for Biloxi. Jim Lewis. The New
    York Times Magazine, May 21, 2006 p100(L)
  • InfoTrac Can traffic congestion be cured?
    Anthony Downs. Washington Post, June 30, 2006.
  • Science Daily Solo Living Is A Potential
    Environmental Time Bomb
  • National Geographic Urban Sprawl
  • The Brookings Institution Concentrated Poverty
    in New Orleans and Other American Cities

5
Video The Working Poor
  • This video clip is available in CNN Today Videos
    for Environmental Science, 2004, Volume VII.
    Instructors, contact your local sales
    representative to order this volume, while
    supplies last.

6
Core Case Study The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba,
Brazil
  • 70 of Curitibas 2 million people use the bus
    system.
  • Only high-rise apartments are allowed near bus
    routes and devote the bottom 2 floors to stores.
  • Bike paths run through the city.
  • Cars are banned from 49 blocks of the citys
    downtown.

7
Core Case Study The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba,
Brazil
  • This bus system moves large numbers of passengers
    based on its infrastructure
  • Express lanes for buses only.
  • Double and triple length buses.
  • Extra-wide doors for easy boarding.

Figure 23-1
8

City center
Route
Express
Interdistrict
Direct
Feeder
Workers
Fig. 23-1, p. 548
9
URBANIZATION AND URBAN GROWTH
  • People move to cities because push factors
    force them out of rural areas and pull factors
    give them the hope of finding jobs and a better
    life in the city.
  • Urban populations are growing rapidly and many
    cities in developing countries have become
    centers of poverty.

10
Major Urban Areas of the World
  • Satellite images of the earth at night showing
    city lights. Currently, 49 of the worlds
    population live in urban areas (2 of earths
    land area).

Figure 23-2
11

Dhaka 13.2 million 22.8 million
Karachi 10.4 million 16.2 million
Beijing 10.8 million 11.7 million
Tokyo 26.5 million 27.2 million
Los Angeles 13.3 million 19.0 million
New York 16.8 million 17.9 million
Cairo 10.5 million 11.5 million
Calcutta 13.3 million 16.7 million
Mumbai (Bombay) 16.5 million 22.6 million
Osaka 11.0 million 11.0 million
Mexico City 18.3 million 20.4 million
Sao Paulo 18.3 million 21.2 million
Manila 10.1 million 11.5 million
Lagos 12.2 million 24.4 million
Jakarta 11.4 million 17.3 million
Delhi 13.0 million 20.9 million
Shanghai 12.8 million 13.6 million
Key
Buenos Aires 12.1 million 13.2 million
2004 (estimated)
2015 (projected)
Fig. 23-2, p. 550
12
Case Study Urbanization in the U.S.
  • 8 of 10 Americans live in Urban areas.
  • About 48 of Americans live in consolidated
    metropolitan areas (bottom map).

Figure 23-4
13
Urban Sprawl
  • When land is available and affordable, urban
    areas tend to sprawl outward because
  • Federal government loan guarantees stimulated the
    development of suburbs.
  • Low-cost gasoline and government funding of
    highways encourages automobile use.
  • Tax-laws encourage home ownership.
  • Most zoning laws separate residential and
    commercial use of land.
  • Many urban areas lack proper planning.

14
Urban Sprawl
  • Urban sprawl in and around Las Vegas, Nevada
    between 1973 and 2000.

Figure 23-5
15
Urban Sprawl
  • As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas
    merge to form megalopolis.
  • Bowash runs from Boston, Massachusetts to
    Washington, D.C.

Figure 23-7
16

Natural Capital Degradation
Urban Sprawl
Land and Biodiversity
Human Health and Aesthetics
Water
Energy, Air, and Climate
Economic Effects
Increased runoff
Loss of cropland
Contaminated drinking water and air
Increased energy use waste
Higher taxes
Increased surface water groundwater pollution
Loss of forests and grasslands
Increased air pollution
Decline of downtown business districts
Increased use of surface water and groundwater
Loss of wetlands
Weight gain
Increased greenhouse gas emissions
Loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitats
Noise pollution
Decreased storage of surface water and groundwater
Increased unemployment in central city
Enhanced global warming
Sky illumination at night
Increased wildlife roadkill
Increased flooding
Warmer microclimate (urban heat island effect)
Loss of tax base in central city
Traffic congestion
Increased soil erosion
Decreased natural sewage treatment
Fig. 23-6, p. 553
17
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Urban areas can offer more job opportunities and
    better education and health, and can help protect
    biodiversity by concentrating people.

18
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Cities are rarely self-sustaining, can threaten
    biodiversity, lack trees, concentrate pollutants
    and noise, spread infectious diseases, and are
    centers of poverty crime, and terrorism.

Figure 23-3
19
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Urban areas rarely are sustainable systems.

Figure 23-8
20

Inputs
Outputs
Energy
Solid wastes
Noise
Food
Waste heat
Water
Wealth
Raw materials
Air pollutants
Manufactured goods
Ideas
Water pollutants
Money
Manufactured goods
Information
Greenhouse gases
Fig. 23-8, p. 554
21
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Noise levels of some common sounds. Prolonged
    exposure to lower noise levels and occasional
    loud sounds can greatly increase internal stress.

Figure 23-9
22

Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure
Noise Levels (in dbA)
Normal breathing
Quiet rural area
Rainfall
Vacuum cleaner
Lawn mower
Rock music
Earphones at loud level
Boom cars
Whisper
Quiet room
Normal conversation
Average factory
Chain saw
Military rifle
Air raid siren
Thunder-clap (nearby)
Fig. 23-9, p. 555
23
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  • Extreme poverty forces hundreds of millions of
    people to live in slums and shantytowns where
    adequate water supplies, sewage disposal, and
    other services do not exist.

Figure 23-10
24
How Would You Vote?
  • To conduct an instant in-class survey using a
    classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker
    Content from the PowerLecture main menu for
    Living in the Environment.
  • Should squatters around cities of developing
    countries be given title to land they live on?
  • a. No. No one has the right to steal and pollute
    public or private lands.
  • b. Yes. The poor need homes.

25
TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  • Land availability determines whether a city must
    grow vertically or spread out horizontally and
    whether it relies mostly on mass transit or the
    automobile.
  • If Americans doubled their use of mass transit
    from 5 to 10, this would reduce U.S. dependence
    on oil by 40.

26
TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  • Motor vehicles provide personal benefits and
    promote economic growth, but also kill and injure
    many people, pollute the air, promote urban
    sprawl, and result in traffic jams.
  • Although it would not be politically popular, we
    could reduce reliance on automobiles by having
    users pay for their harmful effects.

27
Solutions Redesigning Urban Transport
  • Alternatives include walking, bicycling, and
    taking subways, trains, and buses.

28
How Would You Vote?
  • To conduct an instant in-class survey using a
    classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker
    Content from the PowerLecture main menu for
    Living in the Environment.
  • Should half the U.S. gasoline tax be used to
    develop mass transit, bike lanes, and other
    alternatives to the car?
  • a. No. Money needed to repair roads and bridges
    should not be spent on bike paths and other
    projects that few people would use.
  • b. Yes. Encouraging alternatives to personal
    vehicles will decrease pollution and save energy.

29

Trade-Offs
Bicycles
Advantages
Disadvantages
Little protection in an accident
Affordable
Produce no pollution
Do not protect riders from bad weather
Quiet
Require little parking space
Not practical for trips longer than 8 kilometers
(5 miles)
Easy to maneuver in traffic
Take few resources to make
Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles)
Very energy efficient
Lack of secure bike parking
Provide exercise
Fig. 23-11, p. 560
30

Trade-Offs
Mass Transit Rail
Advantages
Disadvantages
More energy efficient than cars
Expensive to build and maintain
Produces less air pollution than cars
Cost-effective only along a densely populated
narrow corridor
Requires less land than roads and parking areas
for cars
Commits riders to transportation schedules
Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars
Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents
Reduces car congestion in cities
Fig. 23-12, p. 560
31

Trade-Offs
Buses
Advantages
Disadvantages
More flexible than rail system
Can lose money because they need low fares to
attract riders
Can be rerouted as needed
Often get caught in traffic unless operating in
express lanes
Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail
system
Commits riders to transportation schedules
Can greatly reduce car use and pollution
Noisy
Fig. 23-13, p. 561
32

Trade-Offs
Rapid Rail
Advantages
Disadvantages
Can reduce travel by car or plane
Expensive to run and maintain
Ideal for trips of 2001,000 kilometers (120620
miles)
Must operate along heavily used routes to be
profitable
Much more energy efficient per rider over the
same distance than a car or plane
Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents
Fig. 23-14, p. 561
33
Solutions Redesigning Urban Transport
  • Potential routes for high-speed bullet trains in
    the U.S and parts of Canada.

Figure 23-15
34
Case Study Destroying a Great Mass Transit
System in the U.S.
  • In the early 1900s, the U.S. had one of the
    worlds best street car systems.
  • It was bought and destroyed by companies to sell
    cars and buses.
  • At the same time, National City Lines worked to
    convert electric-powered commuter locomotives to
    diesel-powered ones.

35
URBAN LAND-USE PLANNING AND CONTROL
  • Most land-use planning in the U.S leads to poorly
    controlled urban sprawl and fund this often
    environmentally destructive process with property
    taxes.
  • Smart growth can help control growth patterns
    discourage urban sprawl, reduce car dependence,
    and protect ecologically sensitive areas.

36

Solutions
Smart Growth Tools
  • Limits and Regulations
  • Limit building permits
  • Urban growth boundaries
  • Greenbelts around cities
  • Public review of new development
  • Protection
  • Preserve existing open space
  • Buy new open space
  • Buy development rights that prohibit certain
    types of development on land parcels
  • Taxes
  • Tax land, not buildings
  • Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest
    and agriculture) instead of highest value as
    developed land
  • Zoning
  • Encourage mixed use
  • Concentrate development along mass
    transportation routes
  • Promote high-density cluster housing developments
  • Tax Breaks
  • For owners agreeing legally to not allow certain
    types of development (conservation easements)
  • For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban
    sites (brownfields)
  • Planning
  • Ecological land-use planning
  • Environmental impact analysis
  • Integrated regional planning
  • State and national planning
  • Revitalization New Growth
  • Revitalize existing towns cities
  • Build well-planned new towns and villages within
    cities

Fig. 23-16, p. 563
37
Case Study Land-Use Planning in Oregon
  • Oregon has a comprehensive land-use planning
    process
  • Permanently zone all rural land as forest,
    agriculture, or urban land.
  • Draw an urban growth line around each community.
  • Place control over land-use planning in State
    hands.

38
MAKING URBAN AREAS MORE SUSTAINABLE AND
DESIREABLE PLACES TO LIVE
  • There is a growing movement to create mixed-use
    villages and neighborhoods within urban areas
    where people can live, work and shop close to
    their homes.

39
Cluster Development
  • High density housing units are concentrated on
    one portion of a parcel with the rest of the land
    used for commonly shared open space.

Figure 23-17
40

Creek
Undeveloped land
Marsh
Fig. 23-17a, p. 565
41

Typical housing development
Fig. 23-17b, p. 565
42

Cluster
Cluster housing development
Creek
Cluster
Pond
Fig. 23-17c, p. 565
43
The Ecocity Concept
  • An ecocity allows people to walk, bike, or take
    mass transit for most of their travel, and it
    recycles and reuses most of its wastes, grows
    much of its own food, and protects biodiversity
    by preserving surrounding land.

44
The Ecocity Concept
  • Principles of sustainability
  • Build cities for people not cars.
  • Use renewable energy resources.
  • Use solar-power living machines and wetlands for
    waste water treatment.
  • Depend largely on recycled water.
  • Use energy and matter efficiently.
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste.
  • Reuse and recycle at least 60 of municipal solid
    waste.

45
The Ecocity Concept
  • Protect biodiversity by preserving, protecting,
    and restoring surrounding natural areas.
  • Promote urban gardens and farmers markets.
  • Build communities that promote cultural and
    economic diversity.
  • Use zoning and other tools to keep the human
    population and environmentally sustainable
    levels.
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