# Neural%20Networks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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## Neural%20Networks

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### Neural Networks John Riebe and Adam Profitt What is a neuron? Layers of the Neural Network Translation Functions Types of Neural Networks Training Neurons Matlab ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Neural%20Networks

1
Neural Networks
2
What is a neuron?
PR Elements of the input vector W Weights ? Summer
b Bias n Sum of all P elements and
b ƒ Translation Function a Output
Weights Weights are scalars that multiply each
input element Summer The summer sums the input
elements, PR, together with the bias Bias A
bias is a number that is added to the total from
the summer Translation Function A translation
function is one of many specific functions used
in neural networking.
3
Layers of the Neural Network
• There are only three different types of layers in
a network
• The Input Layer
• Moves the input vectors into each neuron of the
first hidden layer
• The Hidden Layers
• Performs the bulk of the computations in most
networks
• Hidden layers are not always required
• The Output Layer
• Each neuron in the output layer outputs its own
result

4
Translation Functions
5
Types of Neural Networks
• Perceptrons
• Used to classify data.
• Applies the hard-limit transfer function.
• Usually does not have any hidden layers.
• Linear Filters
• Used to solve linearly separable problems.
• Applies the linear transfer function.
• Backpropagation
• Generally has only one hidden layer.
• Can solve any reasonable problem.
• Hidden layers use sigmoid translations, outputs
use the linear transfer function

6
Training Neurons
Training a network sets the biases and weights in
each neuron
• To train a network you need
• A network
• An input
• A target vector
• There are many different types of
• training algorithms. To name a few
• Levenberg-Marquardt
• BFGS quasi-Newton
• Bayesian regularization
• One step secant
• Random order incremental
• Training algorithms
• Gives a network an input
• Calculates error between output and target
• Goes back to step 1

Each time the algorithm goes through the steps is
called an epoch. Most networks go through many
epochs.
7
MatlabApplication
8
The newff Function
• Create a feed-forward network
• Syntax
• net newff
• net newff(PR,S1 S2...Si,TF1 TF2...TFi)
• Description
• net newff creates a new network with a dialog
box.
• newff(PR,S1 S2...Si,TF1 TF2...TFi) takes,
• PR - R x 2 matrix of min and max values for R
input elements.
• Si - Size of ith layer, for Nl layers.
• TFi - Transfer function of ith layer, default
'tansig'.

9
The train Function
Trains a neural network Syntax net
train(net,P,T) Description train trains a
network. train(net,P,T) takes, net - Neural
network object. P - Network inputs. T - Network
targets, default zeros.
10
The sim Function
The sim function simulates a neural network. This
function feeds the network the input, P, and
displays the results.
Syntaxsim(net,P) Descriptionsim simulates
neural networks. sim(net,P) takes, net - Network.
P - Network inputs.
11
Transfer Functions Revisited
• Transfer functions
• Hard-Limit
• a hardlim(n)

Outputs either a 1 or a 0
• Linear
• a purelin(n)

Outputs the scaled and summed input
• Log-Sigmoid
• a logsig(n)

Squeezes the input to between 0 and 1
• Tan-Sigmoid
• a tansig(n)

Squeezes the input to between -1 and 1
12
The Baum-Haussler Rule
The Baum-Haussler Rule is one of the most useful
rules for neural networks.
Nhidden (Ntrain Etolerance) / (Npts
Noutputs)
This rule helps you determine the maximum number
of neurons you will need for your network to
function properly.
This is NOT a law it will not work in all
situations. Sometimes you just have to use
another method.
13
Bibliography
Demuth, Howard and Mark Beale. Neural Network
Toolbox Users Guide. 1992-2003 URL
http//www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/tool
box/nnet/nnet.shtml