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Roman Empire Brings Change

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Title: Roman Empire Brings Change


1
Roman Empire Brings Change
  • Chapter 6
  • section 2
  • pg 146

2
Think about it.
  • What was the real reason Rome developed where it
    did?
  • Rich soil
  • Who were the Etruscans?
  • Natives who influenced architecture
  • What type of government did Rome have?
  • Republic
  • Who headed Romes government?
  • 2 consuls
  • How long was the term for a consul? For senate?
  • 1 year, and lifetime
  • Who did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
  • Carthage

3
  • Rome grew rapidly
  • Political changes
  • Economic changes
  • Social changes
  • The republic government was unable to deal with
    the problems caused by these changes.

4
  • Small farmers found it difficult to repair the
    damage caused by Hannibals invasion.
  • They sold their lands to wealthy landowners.
  • Many of these farmers, a large number of whom
    were returning soldiers, became homeless and
    jobless.

5
  • They worked as seasonal migrant laborers.
  • The landless and unskilled in the cities found
    few jobs.
  • They joined the ranks of the urban poor, a group
    that totaled about ¼ of Roman Society.

6
  • While wealthy Romans became corrupted by money
    and luxury, discontent arose among the slaves.
  • Resentment also grew among the poor.
  • Class tensions planted the seeds of the
    republics collapse.

7
Latifundias
  • Rich landowners lived on huge estates called,
    Latifundias.
  • Latifundias were like large plantations.
  • Slaves worked on these Latifundias.

8
  • Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
    attempted to help Romes poor.
  • As tribunes, they proposed reforms.
  • Limiting size of estates
  • Giving land to the poor

9
They presented their ideas to the Roman Senate
10
(No Transcript)
11
Bill met opposition
  • Some senators felt threatened by the bill.
  • The majority supported it, but the bill was
    overturned by Octavius.
  • Tiberius proposed that Octavius be thrown out.
  • Octavius was thrown out, and the bill passed
  • Tiberius made many enemies.

12
Tiberius Death 133 B.C.
  • While giving a speech, a group of enraged
    senators led by his cousin, Nasica Scipio (son of
    General Scipio of the Punic Wars) tackled
    Tiberius and clubbed him to death.
  • Nasica means pointed nose
  • One morning Scipio was found dead in his bed,
    believed to have been murdered by Tiberius
    supporters.

13
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vg8SaB7O2JRM

14
  • Gaius Gracchus returned to Rome to take the place
    of his brother.
  • Being now some thirty years of age, nine years
    after his brother's murder, Gaius was elected to
    the tribune in 123 BC.

15
Gaius pushes more reforms for lower classes
  • Awarded right to collect taxes due from the newly
    created province of Asia.
  • Huge expenditure on public works
  • Roads
  • Harbors

16
  • Gaius' most visionary piece of legislation,
    however, was too far ahead of its time and
    failed.
  • He wanted to grant all Latins full Roman
    citizenship and to bestow upon all Italians the
    rights so far enjoyed by the Latins.
  • trade
  • marriage with Romans

17
  • Gaius Gracchus' supporters held an angry mass
    demonstration.
  • Some of them brought weapons.
  • The consul Lucius Opimius (Gracchus biggest
    rival) proceeded to Aventine Hill to restore
    order.
  • He saw Gracchus supporters with their weapons
    drawn.
  • This was the excuse he needed to openly attack
    Gracchus.
  • He ordered the militia to attack.
  • What followed was a massacre.

18
Death of Gaius 121 B.C.
  • Gaius, realizing the situation hopeless ordered
    his personal slave to stab him to death.
  • Following the massacre another 3,000 of Gracchus'
    supporters were arrested, taken to jail and
    strangled.

19
  • Tiberius and his brother Gaius Gracchus were
    known for their struggle for the lower classes of
    Rome.

20
Changes in the military
  • Changes in the army had led to the rise of
    politically powerful military leaders.
  • Generals began recruiting soldiers from landless
    poor by promising them land.
  • The soldiers fought for pay and owed allegiance
    only to their commander.
  • They replaced the citizen-soldiers whose loyalty
    had been to the republic.
  • It now was possible for a politician supported by
    his own troops to take over by force.

21
Generals try to take over
  • Two such Generals Gaius Marius and Lucius
    Cornelius Sulla.
  • Supporters fought a bloody Civil War that lasted
    6 years.
  • The war ended with Sulla being named dictator.
  • Rivalries between generals continued to threaten
    the republic.
  • Eventually, an ambitions and daring Julius Caesar
    emerged to bring order to Rome.

22

Gaius Marius
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
23
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
24
Julius Caesar
http//www.youtube.com/user/historyteachersp/u/21
/nPYuxReh7fM
25
  • In 60 BC, Julius Caesar joined forces with
    Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular
    general.
  • With their help, Caesar was elected consul in 59
    B.C.
  • For the next 10 years, these men dominated Rome
    as the Triumvirate, a group of three leaders.

26
Crassus and Pompey
27
Caesar
  • Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at
    military strategy.
  • As tradition, he served only 1 year as consul.
  • He then appointed himself the governor of Gaul
    (now France)
  • Caesar led a successful campaign to take over all
    of Gaul.
  • Because he shared fully in the hardships of war,
    he won his mens loyalty and devotion.

28
Ancient Gaul
29
Gaul was France and part of the Roman Empire
30
Caesars Popularity Grows
  • Caesars success in Gaul made him very popular
    with the people of Rome.
  • Pompey, who had become Caesars rival feared his
    ambition.
  • In 50 B.C., the senate, at Pompeys urgings
    ordered Caesar to disband his legions and return
    home.
  • Caesars next moves led to Civil War.

31
  • He defied the Senates order
  • On the night of January 10, 49 B.C., he took his
    army across the Rubicon River in Italy, the south
    limit of the area he commanded.
  • He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and
    Pompey fled.
  • Caesars troops defeated Pompeys armies in
    Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt.
  • In 46 B.C., he was named dictator for life.

32
Rubicon River
33
  • Caesar governed as an absolute ruler, one who has
    total power.
  • He made sweeping changes.
  • Granted Roman citizenship to many people.
  • He expanded the Senate
  • Helped the poor
  • created jobs
  • especially through the construction of new public
    buildings.
  • He started colonies where the landless could own
    land and increased pay for soldiers.

34
  • Many nobles and senators were troubled by
    Caesars growing power, success, and popularity.
  • A number of important senators, led by Marcus
    Brutus and Gaius Cassius, plotted his
    assassination.
  • On March 15, 44 B.C. they stabbed him to death in
    the senate chamber.

35
Marcus Brutus Gaius Cassius
36
Et tu Brute?
  • As Caesar prepared to go speak to the Senate, his
    wife, Calpurnia begged him not to go.
  • She had a dream that she had seen him die in her
    arms from stab wounds.
  • He also had been warned of danger by a fortune
    teller.
  • When Caesar arrived at the chamber, he sat in his
    chair. Soon the plotters encircled him, took
    knives hidden in their togas, and stabbed him 23
    times.
  • They were led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus.
    Caesars last words were Et tu Brute? (You, too
    Brutus?)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v7FvgP5hO99o

37
Murder of Julius Caesar
38
(No Transcript)
39
(No Transcript)
40
Artwork depicting Calpurnia begging her husband
not to go
41
  • After Caesars death, a Civil War broke out again
    and destroyed what was left of the Roman
    Republic.
  • Caesars 18 yr old grand-nephew, Octavian, joined
    forces with general Mark Antony and a powerful
    politician named Lepidus.
  • In 43 B.C., they ruled Rome for 10 years as the
    Second Triumvirate.
  • They avenged Caesars murder by purging the
    senate.
  • Cicero was killed. Cicero was Romes greatest
    public speaker.
  • http//www.youtube.com/user/historyteachersp/u/21
    /nPYuxReh7fM

42
Mark Antony
Octavius
Lepidus
43
Cicero
44
  • The second triumvirate ended in jealousy and
    violence.
  • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire.
  • He and Mark Antony became rivals.
  • While leading troops against Romes enemies in
    Anatolia, Mark Antony met Queen Cleopatra of
    Egypt.
  • He fell in love with her and followed her to
    Egypt.
  • http//www.youtube.com/user/historyteachersp/u/33
    /rVE7RqQwyi0

45
Queen Cleopatra
46
  • Cleopatra knew 9 languages and was skilled in
    Mathematics.
  • Rumored that she had an affair with Julius Caesar
    but also helped plot his death.
  • http//www.youtube.com/user/historyteachersp/u/33
    /rVE7RqQwyi0

47
  • Octavian accused Antony of plotting to rule Rome
    and Egypt, and another civil war erupted.
  • Octavian defeated the combined forces of Antony
    and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31
    B.C.
  • Later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.

48
Mark Antony and Cleopatra die
  • Octavian went to war against Mark Antony because
    he was angry about the land.
  • As a military strategy, someone told Mark Antony
    that Cleopatra was dead.
  • He was so distraught that he fell on his own
    sword and died.
  • When Cleopatra heard Mark Antony was dead, she
    was so distraught that she took an asp (a
    poisonous snake) and let it strike her chest.
  • She excused all her servants and dressed in royal
    robes before doing so.

49
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v3JbcDyupYXo

50
  • Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome.
  • Eventually, he accepted the title of Augustus, or
    exalted one.
  • He also kept the title imperator, supreme
    military commander, a term from which emperor is
    derived.
  • Rome was now an empire ruled by one man.

51
Pax Romana Roman Peace
  • For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the
    empire.
  • It was a period of peace and prosperity.
  • The Roman Empire was as its greatest 3 million
    square miles.
  • Population 60-80 million
  • Population in Rome was 1 million
  • It included many provinces, which were people of
    many languages, cultures, and customs.

52
Roman Empire at its greatest
53
Economy
  • Most important industry
  • 90 of the people were engaged in farming.
  • Trade became easier due to the establishment of
    the denarius.
  • It was a common coin that could be used
    throughout the Roman empire.

54
Trade
  • Roads connected far places, like Persia and
    Russia.
  • Used the Silk Road for trade with China.

55
Silk Road Trading Routes
56
Spread of Roman Culture
  • The Roman army came from many provinces.
  • When they were discharged from the military, the
    went home and spread Roman culture.

57
Augustus
  • Romes ablest emperor
  • Stablized the frontier
  • Glorified Rome with splendid public buildings
  • Set up a civil service
  • Monitor grain supply
  • Collect taxes
  • Postal system

58
Augustus
  • Most powerful ruler of the mightiest empire of
    the ancient world.
  • He lived a simple life.
  • His home was modest by Roman standards.
  • His favorite meal consisted of coarse bread, a
    few sardines, and a piece of cheese the usual
    food of a common laborer.
  • Religious and family oriented
  • Remembered for his strict moral code.

59
  • His only daughter was Julia
  • Exiled her from Rome for not being faithful in
    her marriage.
  • As he neared death, he gathered his family
    including his wife of 52 years, Livia by his
    bedside. He asked them if he had done well in
    life. When they replied that he had, Augustus
    said, Since well Ive played my part, then,
    gentle people, pray applaud, and send me with
    your thanks on my way.

60
Augustus died 14 A.D.
  • Senate named his son, Tiberius, as his successor.
  • Even though some of the following rulers were
    crazy and unstable (Caligula and Nero), the
    government set up by Augustus proved to be stable.

61
Emperors and Succession
  • Romes peace and prosperity depended on an
    orderly transfer of power.
  • Rome had no written laws for selecting a new
    emperor.
  • Crisis or Civil War was always a possibility when
    an emperor died.

62
5 Good Emperors
  • Solved the problem of succession.
  • Each emperor chose a respected leader to take his
    place.
  • The person had to have the respect of both the
    army and the people.
  • The reign of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the 5,
    ended in 180 A.D.
  • His death marked the beginning of the empires
    decline and the end of the Pax Romana.
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