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Physical Science


Physical Science Ch. 1: The Nature of Science Physical Science Physical science is the study of matter and energy. Matter - mass, density, state of matter, elements ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Science

Physical Science
  • Ch. 1 The Nature
  • of Science

Physical Science
  • Physical science is the study of matter and
  • Matter - mass, density, state of matter,
    elements, compounds
  • Energy - force, motion, sound, light, kinetic and
    potential energy, electricity

  • Science in general can be categorized as either
    pure science or applied science.
  • Pure science is the gathering or discovery of new
  • For example, when the laser was created, that was
    brand new information.

  • Applied science (technology) is where the pure
    science is taken and put to a practical use.
  • What are some examples of how the laser (pure
    science) was put to a practical use?

  • Along with your partner, come up with 1 good
    example of pure science and how it was turned
    into applied science.

  • Oftentimes, whether we're discovering new
    information, trying to put it to a practical use,
    or just going through our daily lives, problems
    occur that must be solved before we can move on.
  • There are numerous ways to solve almost every
    problem. One of the most effective techniques is
    to use the scientific method of problem solving.

Scientific Method of Problem Solving
  • The scientific method is a 6 step procedure which
    should take you from the introduction of a
    problem through the solution to the problem.

  • Step 1 Identify the problem
  • Step 2 Gather as much information about
  • the problem as possible.
  • Step 3 Form a hypothesis as to the solution
  • of the problem.
  • A hypothesis is a testable prediction.

  • Step 4 Test the hypothesis. This is done
  • through experimentation.
  • Step 5 Analyze information and data.
  • Step 6 Draw a conclusion
  • Was the problem solved or not?
  • If the problem was not solved, then you must
    go back to a certain step. Which one?

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Solutions to a Problem
  • Sometimes, a solution must be re-tested in order
    to insure that it is truly a correct solution.
  • For example, if a new drug is reported to cure a
    certain form of cancer, then it will surely be
    tested and re-tested to determine if it truly is
    a cure.

  • Practice Problem
  • As a particular part of town continues to
    grow, there is an intersection in that area which
    is having an abnormally large number of traffic
    accidents. Use the scientific method to solve
    the problem.

  • Your cat has a litter of 4 kittens. After 1
    month, 3 of the kittens are normal sized while
    the 4th is noticeably smaller than the others.
  • Come up with 3 hypotheses as to why this may
    be, and tell how you could test each hypothesis.

  • In order to test a hypothesis (step 4), it is
    often necessary to conduct an experiment.
  • An experiment is an organized procedure for
    testing a hypothesis.
  • The are 5 different parts to an experiment.

  • A good experiment has both an independent
    variable and a dependent variable.
  • An independent variable is what is being tested.
    This variable is controlled by the experimenter
    and changes between groups.
  • A dependent variable is one whose value depends
    on the independent variable.

  • For example, let's say a scientist wants to
    conduct an experiment to determine the effects of
    Ibuprofen on intelligence.
  • He takes 2 groups of students, giving 1 group
    2 Ibuprofen tablets a day for 4 weeks, while the
    other group receives none. After the 4 week
    period, the scientist administers an IQ test to
    both groups.

  • The independent variable in this experiment
    would be the Ibuprofen. That's what is being
    tested, and what the controller changes between
    the 2 groups.
  • What would be the dependent variable in this

  • The group which is administered the independent
    variable is called the test group.
  • The other group was only there for comparison to
    the test group. They are called the control

  • Let's say that the Ibuprofen group improved on
    their IQ test scores by an average of 22 points.
    This would seem to point to the fact that the
    Ibuprofen made them smarter.
  • However......................

  • What if the IQ's of the control group also rose
    by 22 points?
  • It would appear then that it was not the
    Ibuprofen that made the test group smarter, since
    the other group got smarter as well, without
    taking Ibuprofen.

  • So that is why we have a control group, to help
    us make more sense out of our results.
  • The last things that a good experiment needs are
  • A constant is a variable that does not change in
    an experiment.

  • For example, in the Ibuprofen experiment, you
    would want to have certain things stay the same
    between the 2 groups.
  • You would want
  • - subjects who were about the same age
  • - about the same of males and females
  • in each group
  • - subjects at about the same level of
  • intelligence.............etc.

  • Let's set up a new experiment now.
  • In 1998, Mark McGuire and Sammy Sosa were in a
    race to see who would reach 61 home runs first.

  • McGuire made it first, but not without some
  • McGuire had been using the drug
    androstenedione (andro), which was legal at the
    time, but has since become illegal.
  • Let's set up an experiment to determine the
    effect of andro on the homerun hitting ability of
    major league players.

  • So having stated what the experiment will test,
    what are the independent and dependent variables
    going to be?
  • Independent -
  • Dependent -

  • Independent - Androstenedione
  • Dependent - The of homeruns hit

  • Let's set up a test group and a control group.
    What would we do to each?
  • Test -
  • Control -

  • Test - Takes 1 Andro tablet/day every day from
    the first day of the season till the last.
  • Control - Takes a placebo tablet every day from
    the first day of the season till the last.

  • Now let's determine some constants which we
    should have. Let's get a minimum of 5.
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

  • Now, with everything set up, we should be able to
    compare the number of homers hit by the members
    of each group during the season and determine if
    Andro did indeed have an effect. (Steps 4-6 in
    the Scientific Method)

  • In the past 10 years, NFL teams have experienced
    an abnormally high number of ACL (knee) injuries.
    Recently a medical supply company has come out
    with a new knee brace which they guarantee will
    decrease ACL injuries by 50.
  • The league decides to test this new brace to see
    if it works. One group of players is made to
    wear the brace for the entire 2005 season, while
    another group goes through the season without any
    type of knee brace. Results are then compiled at
    the end of the season.
  • Independent variable __________________________
  • Dependent variable___________________________
  • Control group________________________________
  • Test Group__________________________________

Observations Inferences
  • As you progress through the scientific method,
    you will gather and evaluate different types of
    information. When presented with this
    information it is often necessary to make
    observations and inferences.

  • An observation is where you use your
  • senses to gather information.
  • For example
  • - smelling milk to see if it's gone bad,
  • - watching you for your warning light to come
  • on to tell you that you're low on gas
  • - feeling around in your purse for your keys

  • An inference is a judgement based on
  • reasoning from evidence.
  • For example, inferring that
  • -Since it is raining outside, softball practice
  • will be cancelled
  • -Because you studied hard for the test, you
  • will get a good grade
  • -Since the lights went out during the storm,
  • lightning must be to blame.

  • Identify each of the following as either
    observations or inferences
  • The Chiefs are a 7 pt. favorite over the Rams.
  • The Chiefs will beat the Rams by 7 points.
  • If the food is past the expiration date then you
  • will get sick if you eat it.
  • The fielder made a very good play on the
  • groundball.
  • It's very warm in this room.

  • Laws Theories
  • Sometimes, more in-depth
  • experiments may actually
  • result in the formation of laws
  • or theories.
  • A law is a rule of nature. Laws describe what
    happens, but do not explain why.

  • What are some other
  • examples of laws?

  • A theory is an explanation based on observations
    and supported by experimental results.

  • A model is a system or structure which represents
    a particular concept or object.

  • Models help us visualize objects and ideas which
    are otherwise impossible or impractical to see.