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Ch. 0 - The Nature of Science

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Ch. 0 - The Nature of Science Defining Science Problem-Solving Scientific Method Experimental Design – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch. 0 - The Nature of Science


1
Ch. 0 - The Nature of Science
  • Defining Science
  • Problem-Solving
  • Scientific Method
  • Experimental Design

2
A. Defining Science
  • Pure Science
  • research that adds to the body of scientific
    knowledge
  • has no practical use
  • Applied Science (Technology)
  • the practical application of scientific
    knowledge

3
Why Pure Science?
  • Michael Faraday was once asked
  • Of what purpose is your science?
  • Faraday Replied Of what purpose is a newborn
    child?

4
A. Defining Science
  • PURE
  • human genetics
  • polymer science
  • atomic theory
  • study of the human ear
  • APPLIED
  • DNA fingerprinting
  • Lycra spandex, plastics, nanotubes
  • nuclear weapons, nuclear power, space propulsion
  • hearing aids

5
A. Defining Science
  • Life Science
  • the study of living organisms
  • Biology AP
  • Earth Science
  • the study of Earth and space
  • Physical Science
  • the study of matter and energy
  • chemistry physics

6
B. Problem-Solving
  • 1. Identify the problem.
  • What do you know?
  • What do you need to know?
  • 2. Plan a strategy.
  • Look for patterns.
  • Break the problem into smaller steps.
  • Develop a model.

7
B. Problem-Solving
  • 3. Execute your plan.
  • 4. Evaluate your results.
  • Did you solve the problem?
  • Is your answer reasonable?
  • Identify - Plan - Execute - Evaluate

8
C. Scientific Method
  • Hypothesis - testable prediction
  • Theory - explanation of why
  • based on many observations experimental results
  • Scientific Law - prediction of what
  • describes a pattern in nature

9
C. Scientific Method
  • Theories and laws are well-accepted by
    scientists, but...

THEY ARE NOT SET IN STONE!
They are revised when new information is
discovered. Are used as fact even when
unexplainable !
10
C. Scientific Method
  • 1. Determine the problem.
  • 2. Make a hypothesis.
  • 3. Test your hypothesis.
  • 4. Analyze the results.
  • 5. Draw conclusions.

11
C. Scientific Method
  • 1. Determine the problem.
  • When the Titanic sank, what happened to the
    water level on shore?
  • 2. Make a hypothesis.
  • The water level rose.
  • The water level dropped.
  • The water level stayed the same.

12
C. Scientific Method
  • 3. Test your hypothesis.
  • How could we test our hypothesis?
  • 4. Analyze the results.
  • What happened during our test?
  • 5. Draw conclusions.
  • Was our hypothesis correct?
  • Is further testing necessary?

13
D. Experimental Design
  • Experiment - organized procedure for testing a
    hypothesis
  • Key Components
  • Control - standard for comparison
  • Single variable - keep other factors constant
  • Repeated trials - for reliability

14
D. Experimental Design
  • Types of Variables
  • Independent Variable
  • adjusted by the experimenter
  • what you vary
  • Dependent Variable
  • changes in response to the indep. variable
  • what you measure

15
D. Experimental Design
  • Hypothesis
  • Storing popcorn in the freezer makes it pop
    better.
  • Control
  • Popcorn stored at room temp.

16
D. Experimental Design
  • Single variable
  • Storage temperature
  • Constants
  • Popcorn brand
  • Freshness
  • Storage time
  • Popper

17
D. Experimental Design
  • Independent Variable
  • Storage temperature
  • Dependent Variable
  • Number of unpopped kernels

18
Density Lab Heads Up
  • Inquiry Experiment
  • Design Experiment- Student developed procedure
  • Must be testable approved
  • Process over Product!
  • Graphing
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