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Title: Overview%20and


1
Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology What,
Why and How
Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics
Jonathan Rothstein Professor of Mechanical Eng.
2
Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Three
Pillars
  • Disciplinary Core Ideas
  • Science and Engineering Practices
  • Crosscutting Concepts

3
Nanotechnology
The biggest science initiative since the Apollo
program
4
Nanotechnology
  • Nanotechnology is the understanding and control
    of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100
    nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel
    applications.

1 nanometer 1 billionth of a meter 1 x 10-9 m
nano.gov
5
Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale?
  • To make better products smaller, cheaper,
    faster, more effective and help sustainability.
    (Electronics, catalysts, water purification,
    solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics
    therapy, and more.)
  • To discover completely new physical phenomena to
    science and technology. (Quantum behavior and
    other effects.)

6
How small are nanostructures?
100 micrometers
100,000 nanometers !
7
Smaller still
Hair
.
100,000 nanometers
8
The Scale of Things Nanometers and More
Things Natural
Things Manmade
1 cm 10 mm
10-2 m
Head of a pin 1-2 mm
The Challenge
1,000,000 nanometers
10-3 m
1 millimeter (mm)
MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) devices 10 -100 mm
wide
Microwave
0.1 mm 100 mm
10-4 m
Human hair 60-120 mm wide
Microworld
0.01 mm 10 mm
10-5 m
Pollen grain
Red blood cells
Infrared
Red blood cells (7-8 mm)
Zone plate x-ray lens Outer ring spacing 35 nm
1,000 nanometers
10-6 m
1 micrometer (mm)
Visible
Fabricate and combine nanoscale building blocks
to make useful devices, e.g., a photosynthetic
reaction center with integral semiconductor
storage.
0.1 mm 100 nm
10-7 m
Ultraviolet
Self-assembled, Nature-inspired structure Many
10s of nm
Nanoworld
0.01 mm 10 nm
10-8 m
10 nm diameter
Nanotube electrode
ATP synthase
1 nanometer (nm)
10-9 m
Carbon buckyball 1 nm diameter
Soft x-ray
Carbon nanotube 1.3 nm diameter
10-10 m
0.1 nm
Quantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper
surface positioned one at a time with an STM
tip Corral diameter 14 nm
Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of
Science, U.S. DOE Version 05-26-06, pmd
9
Types of Nanostructures and How They Are Made
10
"Nanostructures"
Nano-objects
Nanostructured Materials
"nanorod"
"nanoparticle"
"nanofilm"
"nanotube"
and more
nanoscale outer dimensions
nanoscale internal structure
Integrated nano-objects and materials
11
Making Nanostructures Nanomanufacturing
  • "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods

12
Some nanomaterials are just alternate
arrangements of well-known materials
Carbon materials
2010 Nobel Prize!
13
A nanofilm method Thermal Evaporation
sample
QCM
Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material
onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber
film
vapor
Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others
Pressure is held low to prevent contamination!
vacuum 10-7 torr
source
There are many other thin film manufacturing techn
iques
heating source
vacuum pump
14
  • Patterning Photolithography

process recipe
substrate
15
Patterning Imprint Lithography
  • Thermal Imprint Lithography
  • Emboss pattern into thermoplastic or thermoset
    with heating
  • UV-Assisted Imprint Lithography
  • Curing polymer while in contact with hard,
    transparent mold

16
Limits of Lithography
  • Complex devices need to be patterned several
    times
  • Takes time and is expensive
  • Limited by wavelength of light
  • Deep UV 30nm features
  • Can use electrons instead
  • 1nm features possible
  • MUCH slower than optical

IBM - Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip
17
Self Assembly
18
Immiscibility and phase separation Driven by
intermolecular interactions
Olive oil
Balsamic vinegar
Thermodynamically driven
19
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS
Block B
Block A
PS
PMMA
Scale set by molecular size
Ordered Phases
10 A
30 A
50 A
70 A
90 A
20
Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask
nanoporous template
1x1012 magnets/in2
Data Storage... ...and More
21
A Message for Students - Nanotechnology is
changing practically every part of our lives. It
is a field for people who want to solve
technological challenges facing societies across
the world. - There are well-paying, interesting
jobs technician, engineer, scientist,
manufacturing, sales, and others.
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