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South Asia

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Title: South Asia


1
  • South Asia
  • Notes

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Countries
  • South Asia is often called a subcontinent- a very
    large landmass that is smaller than a continent
  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
  • India
  • Maldives
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka

4
India Taj Mahal
5
Pakistan
6
Nepal
7
Mumbai, India
8
Bangladesh
9
The Maldives
10
The Maldives
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Bhutan
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Sri Lanka
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Mountains Plateaus.
  • Himalayas
  • Pangaea theory that the earth was once a giant
    landmass
  • When the continents broke apart, Africa rammed
    into Asia causing the land to crumple up forming
    the Himalayas
  • Over 1000 miles long
  • Contains Mount Everest
  • Worlds highest mountain
  • 29,028 feet high
  • Lies on border between Nepal China

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Himalayas
  • Roof top of the world.
  • Formed by the collision of tectonic plates
  • Everest is the highest peak

15
Everest
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Mountains Plateaus Cont
  • Karakoram Mountains
  • Hindu Kush Mountains
  • Vindhya Mountains
  • Separate north and south India
  • Different cultures in these two regions due to
    the separation

17
Mountains Plateaus cont
  • Eastern Western Ghats
  • Deccan Plateau
  • Form a triangle at Southern India
  • Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats are mountains
    along each coast
  • The Deccan Plateau is in between the mountains

18
Rivers.
  • Indus
  • Brahmaputra
  • Ganges
  • The major rivers start in the Himalaya Mountains
  • Rivers carry fertile soil washed down from the
    mountains
  • When rivers overflow, deposit alluvial soil
    (fertile soil from the silt) onto the flood plain

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Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • Indo-Gangetic Plain- alluvial plain that has been
    created by the flooding of the Indus and Ganges
    Rivers
  • Largest alluvial plain in the world
  • Alluvial plain - flat landform created by the
    deposition of sediment over a long period of time
    by one or more rivers.

22
Deserts.
  • Thar Desert (Great Indian Desert)
  • lies in India Pakistan
  • Dry monsoon winds keeps desert arid and hot

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Monsoons.
  • Monsoons are seasonal winds that greatly affect
    the climate
  • Between October-May- winter winds blow from the
    north and northeast and are dry
  • Between June-September- summer winds blow from
    the south and southwest over the Indian Ocean and
    bring warm, moist air
  • Heavy rains during this time
  • People depend on the heavy rains for farming
  • Sometimes the heavy rains can cause disastrous
    floods

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Cyclones.
  • Cyclone- storm marked by high winds and heavy
    rain
  • Affects Bangladesh
  • storm surges waters wash ashore like a very
    high tide
  • cause major disasters by flooding farmland and
    also causing rivers to flood
  • In 1991, a cyclone killed 131,000 people

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Population.
  • India is the 2nd most populated country in the
    world (1.1 billion people)
  • Highest population growth rate in South Asia
  • Improved health care and sanitation
  • Lower death rate
  • Population will double in 40 years if it
    continues to grow

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Population.
  • High Population Density
  • Densely populated areas
  • Along the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • Along monsoon watered coasts
  • Near where rice is grown
  • Bangladesh
  • Country with the highest population density in
    the world
  • Problem - difficult to produce enough food
  • Less densely populated areas
  • Deccan Plateau
  • Thar Desert
  • Mountains

32
Urbanization.
  • 70 of people live in rural villages in India
  • It is increasing because South Asians are
    migrating to cities in search of better jobs and
    higher wages
  • Largest cities in India
  • Calcutta (3rd largest in world)
  • Bombay (9th largest in world)
  • Delhi (14th largest in world)
  • Cities are
  • Overcrowded
  • Polluted
  • Putting a strain on public facilities like
    schools and hospitals

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History.
  • Early Civilizations
  • Civilization began around the Indus river around
    2500 B.C.
  • Aryans moved into northern India from central
    Asia
  • Spoke an early form of Sanskrit
  • Aryans come into this region and left their ideas
    in Vedas
  • 1. four books about Aryan religious beliefs
  • divided Aryan society into 3 classes
  • Nobles
  • Priests
  • ordinary people
  • eventually developed into the caste system
  • During Aryan time, Siddhartha Gautama taught
    concepts of Buddhism

35
History
  • Islamic Empires
  • A.D. 1000 Islamic empires began attacking India
  • 1398 Timur attacked
  • Babur then took over most of northern India and
    founded the Mughal Empire
  • During this time Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal

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European Colonization.
  • British began trading with India in the 1490s
  • Formed the East India Company
  • Became the most powerful trading corporation
  • Built trading posts and forts in strategic
    locations

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  • Sepoy Rebellion
  • By 1857 British East India Company controlled
    most of India
  • Sepoys- Indian soldiers under command of British
  • In 1857 sepoys rebelled against their British
    commanders
  • Sepoy resented the British trying to (force)
    impose Christianity European customs on them
  • The Sepoys were not successful but it did force
    the British to tighten its control of India
  • Sent a viceroy to take over Indias territory
  • India became a British colony

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European Colonization.
  • jewel in the crown for the British empire
  • A viceroy is a governor ruling as a royal
    representative to take over a territory
  • The viceroy gained control and alliances with
    other Indian states
  • Indian Nationalism
  • Nationalism is the desire for self rule

41
European colonization.
  • To try to stop more unrest in India, the British
    spend lots of money on Indias economy
    development
  • Built paved roads
  • Built railway system
  • Installed telegraph lines
  • Dug irrigation canals
  • Established schools and universities

42
Problems Under British Control
  • British officials discriminated against Indians
  • Forced Indians to change their ancient ways
  • Forced farmers to grow cotton instead of wheat
  • British textile industries needed cotton
  • Lack of wheat led to food shortages that killed
    millions of Indians
  • Indians began to demand more rights
  • Formed Indian National Congress
  • Political group that led to the long struggle for
    independence

43
Independence for India.
  • Indians wanted independence and equality
  • Mohandas Gandhi led the independence movement
  • Encouraged Indians to boycott British goods
  • Led peaceful marches

44
India Pakistan.
  • Following WWII, Britain granted India
    independence
  • Hostility between Hindus and Muslims grew
  • 1947 India was partitioned into 2 countries
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • 1971 East Pakistan broke away from West Pakistan
    forming Bangladesh

45
Government.
  • India is the worlds largest democracy
  • Indias government is based on British model
  • Parliament
  • Prime minister
  • Pakistan has a president who is elected
    indirectly by members of the legislature
  • Bhutan and Nepal are monarchies

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Language.
  • Many different languages
  • Indo-Aryan Language family
  • Most languages spoken in Pakistan, India and
    Bangladesh fall in this language family - group
    of related languages that have all developed from
    one earlier language

47
Language.
  • Major languages spoken
  • India- Hindi English
  • Pakistan- Urdu
  • Bangladesh- Bengali
  • Nepal- Nepali
  • Sri Lanka- Sinhalese

48
Religion.
  • Indias government is secular
  • The major religions are
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Islam
  • India and Nepal - Hinduism
  • 80 of India is Hindu
  • Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives Islam
  • Sri Lanka Bhutan - Buddhism
  • Two of the worlds major religions began in India
    - Hinduism and Buddhism

49
Hinduism.
  • Believe that
  • Every individual must live according to his or
    her own dharma ones moral duty in life
  • Karma positive or negative forces caused by a
    persons actions
  • Reincarnation repeated rebirth of ones soul in
    different forms
  • Those who fulfill their dharma earn good karma
    and may be reborn as persons of higher status
  • Many gods and goddesses
  • Reincarnation and karma maintain the caste system

50
Caste System.
  • caste system group of people who are born into
    a certain position in society
  • 4 major castes
  • Brahmins priests and intellectuals
  • Kshatriyas warriors
  • Vaisyas traders and merchants
  • Sudras farmers and laborers
  • Dalits the oppressed
  • Born into caste cannot move into another
  • Indian constitution abolished caste system but
    still remains large part of daily life

51
Hinduism Distribution
52
Buddhism.
  • Siddhartha Gautama was a prince
  • He went on a pilgrimage - religious journey
  • After years of spiritual searching and
    meditation, he became known as Buddha (or the
    Awakened One)

53
Buddha.
  • Buddha taught
  • People suffer because they are overly attached to
    material things
  • To escape this suffering which leads to endless
    rebirth, one must live by certain rules
  • The rules include
  • Thinking clearly
  • Acting wisely
  • Behaving kindly towards others
  • Buddha taught guidelines so people enter nirvana
    - state of great insight, calm, and happiness

54
Sikhism.
  • Founded in the 1500s by Guru Nanak
  • Combined Hinduism and Islam into one religion
  • Monotheistic - believe in one God
  • Hindu ideas of karma and reincarnation
  • Most Sikhs live in northwest India

The khanda the sikh symbol
55
Jainism.
  • Began in the 500s BC by a young Hindu teacher
    Mahavira
  • Believe in non-violence
  • Every living thing has a soul
  • 3 million followers in India
  • Combines aspects of Hinduism Buddhism

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Influence of Religion.
  • Religion has a powerful influence on daily life
    in South Asia
  • Prayer flags flap in the wind sending out mantras
    - sacred messages
  • Sadhus - Hindu teachers
  • In Hindu countries, cows are considered sacred
    and are seen roaming the streets
  • Pakistan - women must dress modestly as Islamic
    law requires

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Agriculture.
  • 56 of India is arable (fertile)
  • 2/3 of people in South Asia are farmers
  • Farming contributes 25 of Indias GDP
  • Most are subsistence farmers- manage to produce
    just what they need to survive
  • Some farmers are getting better technology
    (tractors)
  • Often have small plots of land because of
    traditional inheritance practices
  • Most farms are less than 2.5 acres
  • Land is divided equally among sons
  • As generations pass, plots become smaller

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Agriculture.
  • Variety of crops
  • Major food crop is rice
  • India is the worlds 2nd largest producer of rice
  • Other crops
  • Wheat, Sugarcane , citrus fruits, rubber and
    cotton
  • Jute - fiber used to make string and cloth
  • Peanuts leading producer
  • Tea grown on plantations in Sri Lanka

61
Agriculture.
  • Improved Agricultural Practices
  • Since population is growing rapidly, food
    production must increase too
  • Training farmersto use technology
  • Programs to teach about irrigation, insect
    control, and fertilization
  • Plant two or more crops on the same piece of land
    each year
  • Agricultural research
  • Green Revolution
  • Began in the 1960s
  • Plant breeders were worried about world hunger
  • Wanted to find ways to grow better crops
    (produced more, grew faster)
  • Used genetic engineering on crops

62
Industry.
  • Some areas are more industrialized than others
  • Light industry - production of consumer goods
    (like bikes, TVs, textiles)
  • Heavy industry - production of machinery and
    equipment needed for factories

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Tourism.
  • Important to the economies of the mountains
    countries
  • Nepal - climb or trek in the Himalayas
  • Sri Lanka - beautiful beaches
  • Maldives - beaches (Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes
    went on their honeymoon there)

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Environment.
  • Deforestation
  • The loss or destruction of forests due mainly to
    trees being cleared for logging or farming
  • Half of Indias forests have been cut down since
    independence
  • Soil erosion overgrazing
  • India
  • Many trees cut down by logging companies to clear
    land for other businesses farming
  • Nepal
  • Trekkers (mountain hikers) use lots of firewood
  • Hikers also leave behind large amounts of trash
  • 2010 group of Sherpas led mission to clean up
    trash, oxygen tanks, and dead bodies left behind
    by trekkers

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Effects of Deforestation.
  • Mangroves - trees along the coast of the Bay of
    Bengal
  • Mangroves provide protection from cyclones and
    tidal waves
  • Mangroves are being cut down leaving Bangladesh
    vulnerable to floods
  • Himalayas
  • Forests act like sponges and absorb the heavy
    rains of the monsoons
  • When forests are cut down, it causes flooding and
    landslides

Another effect of deforestation
66
Things to Know for the Quiz
  • Mountains Plateaus
  • Major Rivers
  • Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • All About Monsoons
  • Cyclones
  • Sepoys
  • Languages
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