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HINDUISM

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Title: Slide 1 Author: HazelAnne Last modified by: Hazelanne Created Date: 3/26/2008 3:29:31 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HINDUISM


1
HINDUISM
2
Followers Called
Hindus
Symbol
Aum or Om
of World Population
13.33
of adherents
900 Million
3
Origins History
Indigenous (native) religion
Where Found?
India
4
henotheistic one deity (Brahman) with many
forms.
Deity Universe
Sacred Writing
Vedas Bhagavad Gita
5
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Humans are in bondage to ignorance and illusion,
but are able to escape. Purpose is to gain
release from rebirth, or at least a better
rebirth.
Afterlife
Reincarnation until reach enlightenment
6
Practices and Rituals
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • worship (puja)
  • devotion to a god or goddess
  • pilgrimage to holy cities
  • live according to one's dharma (purpose/ role).

7
Pictures
8
Chinese Indigenous
9
Followers Called
Symbol
6.27 394 million
of World Population
of adherents
10
Origins History
Indigenous folk religion of China
Where Found?
China
11
Dualistic - yin and yang mythological beings and
folk deities
Deity Universe
Sacred Writing
None
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Purpose is a favorable life and peaceful
afterlife, attained through rituals and honoring
of ancestors
12
Judgment, then reincarnation or temporary hell
until gain a Buddhist-type paradise
Afterlife
Practices and Rituals
  • Ancestor worship prayer
  • longevity practices
  • divination, prophecy and astrology, feng shui

13
(No Transcript)
14
BUDDHISM
15
Followers Called
Buddhists
8 Spoke Wheel / Wheel of Law
Symbol
of World Population
5.87
360 Million
of adherents
16
Origins History
Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha in 520 BCE NE India
Where Found?
Mongolia, Southeast Asia, China and Japan
17
Deity Universe
Buddha taught that nothing is permanent.
Sacred Writing
  • Tripitaka (Pali Canon) Mahayana sutras like the
    Lotus Sutra others

18
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Purpose is to avoid suffering and gain
enlightenment and release from cycle of rebirth,
or at least attain a better rebirth by gaining
merit.
Afterlife
Nirvana - Enlightenment
19
Practices and Rituals
  • Meditation
  • Mantras (statement of belief repeated to aid
    concentration in meditation)
  • devotion to deities (in some sects)

20
Pictures
21
SIKHISM
22
Sikhs (pronounced Sic-khs (like khakhi))
Followers Called
Symbol
Khanda
.39 23 million
of World Population
of adherents
23
Guru Nanak, c. 1500 AD, Punjab, India.
Origins History
Where Found?
Kashmir and Punjab
24
Henotheistic - Only one God in many forms. God
(Ik Onkar, Nam)
Deity Universe
Sacred Writing
Adi Granth (Sri Guru Granth Sahib) written in
Gurumukhi (language created by Guru Nanak)
25
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Overcome the self, align life with will of God,
and become a "saint soldier," fighting for good
Reincarnation until resolve karma and merge with
God
Afterlife
26
Practices and Rituals
  • Prayer and meditation on God's name
  • services at temple (gurdwara)
  • turban and five Ks
  • (Kesa long hair, kangah comb, kacha short
    pants, kara metal bracelet, and Kirpan
    ceremonial dagger)
  • Balance work, worship, and charity

27
Pictures
28
Baha'i
29
Bahais
Followers Called
Symbol
.12 5-7 million
of World Population
of adherents
30
Founded by Bahá'u'lláh, 1863, Tehran, Iran .
Origins History
Where Found?
India, Middle East, and Asia
31
One God, who has revealed himself progressively
through major world religions
Deity Universe
Sacred Writing
Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and other Bahá'í leaders
32
Human Situation Life's Purpose
The soul is eternal and essentially good. Purpose
of life is to develop spiritually and draw closer
to God
Soul separates from the body and begins a journey
towards or away from God. Heaven and hell are
states of being
Afterlife
33
Practices and Rituals
  • Daily prayer
  • avoidance of intoxicants
  • scripture reading
  • hard work, education, and work for social justice
    and equality
  • God is unknowable, but has sent great prophets
  • Adam, Abraham, Moses, Krishna, Zoroaster, Buddha,
    Jesus Christ, Mohammed, The Bab, and Baha'u'llah
    (there will be more)

34
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35
CONFUCIANISM
36
Followers Called
Confucians
Symbol
Water symbol
of World Population
.10
of adherents
5-6 Million
37
Kung Fu Tzu / Confucius in 551-479 BCE - China
Origins History
Where Found?
China and Koreas
38
Deity Universe
none way of life - not religion
x
Sacred Writing
The Analects of Confucius
39
Human Situation and Life's Purpose
Purpose in life is to fulfill ones role in
society with propriety, honor, and loyalty
Not addressed
Afterlife
40
Practices and Rituals
  • Honesty, politeness, propriety, and humaness
  • Perform correct role in society
  • Loyal to family and nation
  • Many people practice Confucianism and another
    belief system.

41
Pictures
42
Jainism
43
Jains
Followers Called
Symbol
.07 4 million
of World Population
of adherents
44
Mahavira, c. 550 BC, eastern India .
Origins History
Where Found?
Mostly in India
45
The universe is eternal many gods exist. Gods,
humans and all living things are classified in a
complex hierarchy
Deity Universe
Sacred Writing
teachings of Mahavira in various collections.
46
Human Situation Life's Purpose
The soul is uncreated and eternal and can attain
perfect divinity by avoiding all bad karma
Reincarnation until liberation
Afterlife
47
Practices and Rituals
  • Five Great Vows (Non-Violence, Truth, Celibacy,
    Non-Stealing, Non-Possessiveness)
  • worship at temples and at home
  • Meditation and mantras

48
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49
SHINTOISM
50
Followers Called
Shintos
Symbol
Torii Gate
.04 3-4 million
of World Population
of adherents
51
Indigenous religion of Japan
Origins History
Where Found?
Japan
52
Deity Universe
Polytheism based on the kami, ancient gods or
spirits
Sacred Writing
Important texts are Kojiki (Records of Ancient
Matters) and Nihon-gi (Chronicles of Japan)
53
Humans are pure by nature and can keep away evil
through purification rituals and attain good
things by calling on the kami.
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Death is bad and impure. Some humans become kami
after death.
Afterlife
54
Practices and Rituals
Worship and offerings to kami at shrines and at
home. Purification rituals.
55
Pictures
56
TAOISM
57
Followers Called
Taoists (pronounced Daoists)
Symbol
Yin - yang
of World Population
.04 20 Million
of adherents
58
Lao-Tzu, c. 550 BC, China.
Origins History
Where Found?
Taiwan
59
Deity Universe
Pantheism - the Tao pervades all. Yin-yang -
opposites make up a unity.
Sacred Writing
Tao Te Ching, Chuang-Tzu
60
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Purpose is inner harmony, peace, and longevity.
Revert back to state of non-being, which is
simply the other side of being.
Afterlife
61
Practices and Rituals
"go with the flow" of the Tao. Tai-chi acupunctur
e and alchemy to help longevity
62
Pictures
63
Zoroastrianism
64
Followers Called
Zoroastrians
Symbol
of World Population
.04 20 Million
of adherents
65
Zoroaster in c.6th cent. BC, Persia. Official
religion of ancient Persia. May have influenced
Judaism and Vedic religion
Origins History
Where Found?
In India called Parsism also in Central Asia
66
Deity Universe
One God, Ahura Mazda, but a dualistic worldview
in which an evil spirit, Angra Mainyu, is almost
as powerful
Zend Avesta
Sacred Writing
67
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Humans are free to do good or evil, must choose
the side of good
Judgement followed by heaven or hell. Hell is
temporary until final purgation and return to
Ahura Mazda
Afterlife
68
Practices and Rituals
Good deeds, charity, equality, hard work
69
(No Transcript)
70
ISLAM
71
Muslims
Followers Called
Symbol
Crescent Moon Star
21 1.5 billion
of World Population
of adherents
72
Muhammad, 622 AD in Saudi Arabia
Origins History
Where Found?
Middle East, North Africa, Central Southeast
Asia
73
Deity Universe
One God, the God of Abraham (Allah).
Sacred / Important Writing
Quran (Koran) scriptures. Hadith - traditions
74
Human Situation Life's Purpose
Humans must submit to the will of God to gain
Paradise after death.
Afterlife
Paradise or Hell
75
Practices and Rituals
  • 5 Pillars of Islam Giving of alms, Pilgrimage
    to Mecca (Hajj), Fasting during Ramadan, prayer,
    declaration of faith.
  • Mosque is the building.
  • Service is on Friday
  • Ablutions (ritual washing) before prayer.
  • No alcohol or pork
  • Holidays related to pilgrimage (Hajj) and fasting
    of Ramadan.
  • Sunnis (90) Shia (10)

76
The Kabah at Makkah - believed to have been built
by Adam and then Abraham.
Kabah cornerstone. Given to Abraham by God.
The door to the Kabah
Makkah - only people who practice Islam are
allowed inside.
Heraa Cave where Gabriel came to Muhammad
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