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CLASSIFICATION of MATTER

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Title: CLASSIFICATION of MATTER


1
CLASSIFICATION of MATTER
2
What is matter?
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
    space.

3
Matter
  • Anything that has both mass AND volume
  • MASS
  • A measure of the amount of matter contained in an
    object
  • VOLUME
  • A measure of the amount of space an object takes
    up
  • Substances
  • Matter that has a uniform and unchanging chemical
    composition
  • EX. Water (H2O) Table salt (NaCl)

4
Properties of Matter
  • How It Looks (Shiny ,Dull, Color, etc.)
  • How It Feels (Hard, Soft, Rough , Smooth, etc.)
  • How It Smells (Sweet, Sharp, Terrible, No Smell,
    etc.)
  • How It Sounds (Loud, Soft, Echo, No Sound, etc.)
  • What It Does (Bounce, Stretch, Tear, Break,
    Magnetism etc.)

5
Physical Properties of Matter
  • A characteristic that can be observed or measured
    without changing the samples composition
  • Also used to describe pure substances
  • There are two types of physical properties
  • EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
  • dependent on the amount of the substance present
  • INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
  • NOT dependent on the amount of the substance
    present

DENSITY
LENGTH
VOLUME
MASS
COLOR
ODOR
TASTE
HARDNESS
MELTING POINT
BOILING POINT
6
Chemical Properties of Matter
  • Ability OR inability of a substance to combine
    with or change into one or more other substances

7
Identify Properties
  • Classify each of the properties below into either
    PHYSICAL or CHEMICAL

PHYSICAL
CHEMICAL
melting point of 97.81C
bright, silvery metal
decomposes it to evolve hydrogen and form the
hydroxide
floats on water
may ignite spontaneously on water
soft
8
5 States of Matter
  • Solids
  • Liquids
  • Gases
  • Plasma
  • Bose-Einstein Condensate (This one only happens
    in a lab within a few billionths of a degree
    above absolute zeroso, yeah. You wont see this
    unless you are in a lab

9
SOLIDS
10
SOLID
  • A solid is matter that has that has definite size
    and shape.
  • Example Put a sneaker in a box. It stays the
    same.

11
States of Matter
  • Solid
  • Form of matter that has its own definite shape
    and volume
  • Particles within a solid are tightly packed
  • When heated, it will expand only slightly
  • Cannot be compressed
  • Low Kinetic Energy (KE)

12
Liquids
13
LIQUID
  • A liquid takes the shape of any container.
  • Example Pour juice into a glass. The juice
    will take on the shape of the glass.


14
States of Matter
  • Liquid
  • Form of matter that flows, has a constant volume,
    and takes the shape of its container
  • Less tightly packed
  • When heated, it will expand
  • Is virtually incompressible
  • Moderate Kinetic Energy (KE)

15
GAS
16
Gas
  • Gas is matter that has no definite shape. Gases
    take the shape of whatever container they are in
    .
  • Example The air all around us is a gas.

17
States of Matter
  • Gas
  • Form of matter that flows to conform to the shape
    of its container and fills the entire volume of
    its container
  • Very loosely packed
  • When heated, it will expand and sometimes escape
  • Easily compressed
  • High Kinetic Energy (KE)
  • Gas vs. Vapor
  • Gas the state of matter
  • Vapor gaseous state of a substance that is
    either a liquid or gas at room temperature
  • BOTH liquids and gases are fluids because they
    flow

18
Physical changes in matter
  • A Physical change is a change in how matter
    looks, but not the kind of matter is it is.
  • Tear
  • Cut
  • Folded
  • Written
  • Liquid
  • Solid
  • Gas
  • Mixture
  • Solution

19
Physical Changes
  • Changes that DO NOT alter the composition of a
    substance
  • Physical changes are those that are causing a
    change in a physical property
  • Examples
  • Cutting paper
  • Breaking a crystal

20
PHYSICAL CHANGES
21
Changes in States of Matter
  • Changes in the state of matter are all PHYSICAL
    CHANGES as they do NOT alter the arrangement of
    the substance

22
Chemical changes in matter
  • New Matter is formed.
  • Burning
  • Rusting
  • Cooking


23
Chemical Changes
  • Process that involves one or more substances
    changing into new substances
  • a.k.a. Chemical reaction
  • Reactants Starting substances
  • Products Resulting substances
  • Newly formed substances will have different
    compositions and properties than the original
    substances

Fe O ? FeO
Iron reacts with Oxygen to produce Iron Oxide
24
CHEMICAL CHANGES
25
Four Indications of a Chemical Change
  1. release of a gas
  2. release of heat, light or sparks
  3. formation of a precipitate
  4. color change

26
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Mass is neither created nor destroyed, it is only
    rearranged.
  • The total mass you have in the beginning of a
    reaction must be present at the end of the
    reaction
  • Mercury Oxygen ? Mercury Oxide
  • If there are 200g of mercury and 16g of oxygen,
    what mass of mercury oxide is produced.
  • Mercury Oxygen ? Mercury Oxide
  • 200g 16g
    ?

  • 216g

27
Is this a solid, a liquid, or a gas? Can you find
more than one type of matter in any of the
pictures?
28
Is this a physical change or a chemical change?
Can you find more than one physical or chemical
change in the pictures?
29
Lets watch a video clip about matter!
  • States of Matter

Click to go to the next slide.
30
Mixtures
  • A combination of two or more pure substances in
    which each pure substance retains its own
    individual chemical properties
  • physical combination
  • can be separated physically
  • has no definite ratio

31
Mixtures versus Compounds
S
Fe
Physically mixed, can be separated by physical
means.
Chemically reacted, cannot be separated by
physical means.
32
Elements
  • A pure substance that cannot be separated into
    simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
  • 91 occur naturally
  • Allotropes- element is found in more than one
    form.
  • Ex. Carbon- diamond graphite, Oxygen- O2 O3.
  • Diatomic elements- found as a pair with itself
  • Ex. O2, N2, F2, Cl2, H2, I2, Br2
  • Expressed with a chemical symbol
  • -one, two or three letters
  • -only the first letter is capitalized
  • -organized on the Periodic Table

33
Periodic Table
  • ?Horizontal rows-periods
  • ??Vertical row-groups/family
  • Elements in a group/family together have similar
    properties

34
Compounds
  • Chemical combination of two or more elements
  • definite ratio
  • can only be separated by chemical changes
  • Compounds that occur naturally are more stable
    than the individual component elements.
  • properties of a compound are different from the
    properties of the elements that make it
  • Water
  • aspirin
  • sugar
  • NaCl (salt)
  • NH3 (ammonia)
  • HCl (hydrochloric acid)
  • Fe2O3 (Iron III Oxide)
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