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The Earth


Properties Earth is a sphere Aristotle believed the Earth was round because of the shadow cast on the Moon during a lunar eclipse. (circa 350 B.C.) Earth bulges ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Earth

The Earth Moon System
The Earth
  • Properties
  • Earth is a sphere
  • Aristotle believed the Earth was round because of
    the shadow cast on the Moon during a lunar
    eclipse. (circa 350 B.C.)
  • Earth bulges slightly at the equator is
    somewhat flattened at the poles.

  • Rotation
  • The amount of time it takes an object to make
    one full spin on its axis.
  • Rotation causes day night.
  • Earths rotation is 23 hrs, 56 min

  • Revolution
  • The amount of time it takes for one object to
    make one full trip around another larger object
    in space.
  • The orbit path is elliptical.
  • Earths revolutionary period is 365.25 days

  • Magnetic Field
  • The movement of Earths core material Earths
    rotation generates a magnetic field.
  • Protects Earth from some of the solar radiation.
  • The magnetic axis is inclined at 11.5o from the
    rotational axis.

The distance between the Earth and its moon
averages about 238,900 miles (384,000
kilometers). The diameter of the moon is 2,160
miles (3,476 kilometers).
  • The Seasons
  • Earths Orbit Tilted Axis
  • Whether the Earth is closer to the Sun or
    further away has NOTHING to do with its seasons.
  • Earths axis is tilted 23.5o
  • The tilting of the axis results in part of the
    Earth receiving more direct sunlight at times
    causing the seasons.

  • Solstices
  • The day when the Sun reaches its greatest
    distance north or south of the equator.
  • The summer solstice is the 1st day of summer and
    has the longest number of daylight hours during
    the year.
  • The winter solstice is the 1st day of winter and
    has the shortest number of daylight hours during
    the year.

  • Equinoxes
  • The two days out of the year when the Sun is
    directly over the equator.
  • 1st day of autumn spring.
  • The number of daylight hours are nearly equal
    all over the world.
  • Neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.

How did the moon form? According to the "giant
impact" theory, the young Earth had no moon. At
some point in Earth's early history, a rogue
planet, larger than Mars, struck the Earth in a
great, glancing blow. Instantly, most of the
rogue body and a sizable chunk of Earth were
vaporized. The cloud rose to above 13,700 miles
(22,000 kilometers) altitude, where it condensed
into innumerable solid particles that orbited the
Earth as they aggregated into ever larger
moonlets, which eventually combined to form the
The Moon is 4.5 billion years old.
The Moon
The distance From Earth is 363,301 kilometers
(225,745 miles).
  • Motions of the Moon
  • Rotation period 27.3 days
  • Revolutionary period 27.3 days
  • Since both motions are the same, the same side
    of the Moon ALWAYS faces the Sun.
  • This produces the phases of the Moon.

If the moon were placed on the surface of the
continental United States, it would extend from
San Francisco to Cleveland (2,600 miles)
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Each phase is determined by the positions of the
    Earth, Moon, Sun.
  • Waxing occurs when the lighted side of the Moon
    begins to show more more.
  • Waning occurs when the lighted side becomes less
    and less.

  • The thin sliver of the lighted side is called a
    Waxing Crescent.
  • When the right half of the lighted side is
    showing, its called a 1st Quarter Moon.
  • When more than half of the lighted side is
    showing, its called a Waxing Gibbous.
  • A Full Moon occurs when all of the lighted side
    of the Moon is showing.

  • A New Moon occurs when the Moon is between the
    Sun Earth. The dark side of the Moon faces the
    Earth while the lighted side faces the Sun. The
    moon is not up during the night.
  • A Waning Gibbous occurs after the Full Moon.
  • When the left half of the Moon is showing, a 3rd
    Quarter Moon occurs.
  • A Waning Crescent occurs next followed by the New
    Moon again.

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  • Eclipses
  • Solar Eclipses
  • The Moon, during the New phase, blocks the Sun
    by passing in front of it.
  • The shadow cast on the Earth by Moon during the
    eclipse is called the umbra. A total eclipse is
    seen here.
  • A partial eclipse is seen in the penumbra, which
    is a lighter shadow.

  • Lunar Eclipse
  • The Earth passes between the Sun Moon. The
    Earth casts its shadow on the surface of a Full
  • Light passing through the Earths atmosphere
    during a total lunar eclipse can sometimes make
    the Moon turn red.
  • More common than solar eclipses.

Do you know the moons name? Its Luna.
The word "lunatic" comes from when doctors
thought that the insane were "moonstruck."
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  • The Moons Surface Interior
  • Lunar Surface
  • No atmosphere
  • Covered in craters caused by meteor impacts.
  • Dark, flat regions made of basaltic lava flows
    are called maria (mare.)

  • Lunar Interior
  • Crust of the light side of the Moon might be
    thinner than the dark side of the Moon.
  • The upper mantle of the Moon is solid with a
    partially melted lower mantle.
  • The core may be solid iron-rich.

The moon is actually moving away from earth at a
rate of 1.5 inches per year.
The temperature on the Moon reaches 243 F at
midday on the lunar equator. During the night,
the temperature falls to -261 F.
Exploring the Moon
  • We choose to go to the Moon.-JFK
  • Project Mercury
  • Goal orbit a piloted spacecraft around the
    Earth and bring it back safely.
  • Alan B. Sheppard was the 1st US citizen in space
  • John Glenn was the 1st US citizen to orbit the

Shepard's Freedom 7 flight lasted 15 m 28s.
John Glenns ride into space was a total of 4
hours, 55 minutes, and 23 seconds.
  • Project Gemini
  • Goal Teams of two astronauts in the same
    spacecraft meet up connect with another

The Gemini Program was a step between Project
Mercury and the Apollo Program, and had four
objectives 1) To subject astronauts to long
duration flights 2) to develop methods of docking
with and maneuvering other orbiting vehicles in
space 3) to perfect methods of reentry and
landing the spacecraft 4) to gain additional
information concerning the effects of
weightlessness on crew members and to record the
reactions of crew members during long duration
  • Project Apollo
  • Goal Successfully land a person on the Moon.
  • Apollo I Destroyed on the launch pad when an
    electrical fire erupted in the cockpit, killing
    the 3 person crew.(1967)

The hatches could not be opened, because of the
pressure of the hot gasses inside the command
module, which soon ruptured. Emergency
evacuation was very complicated, and had never
been done in a little as 90 seconds. Rescue
efforts were unsuccessful. 27 men were treated
for smoke inhalation, two were hospitalized.
Edward White, Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee
  • Apollo XI Neil Armstrong Edwin Buzz Aldrin
    successfully land on explore the Moon. (1969)

Just twenty seconds' worth of fuel remained when
Apollo 11's lunar module landed on the moon.
The footprints left by the Apollo astronauts will
not erode since there is no wind or water on the
Moon. The footprints should last at least 10
million years.
Astronauts Neil Armstrong, left, Michael Collins,
center, and Buzz Aldrin
It would take 135 days to drive by car (70
mph) to the moon
The average desktop computer contains 5-10 times
more computing power than was used to land a man
on the moon.
  • Apollo XIII An explosion occurred in one of the
    oxygen tanks two days into the mission.
  • The crew was unable to land on the Moon, but
    returned safely to Earth 4 days later.

Left to right Lovell, Swigert, Haise
Square peg in a round hole
Mission control during splash down
  • Apollo XVII The last mission to the Moon. The
    1st geologist (scientist) explores the Moon.

Gene Cernan was the last man to step on the moon
in 1972.
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  • Total Solar Eclipse August 21, 2017

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