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Energy in Earth

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Energy in Earth s Processes Unit 5 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy in Earth


1
Energy in Earths Processes
  • Unit 5

2
Introduction
  • Energy is the ability to do work.
  • Everything in the universe involves the use or
    transfer of energy.

3
Electromagnetic Energy
  • Energy given off by all matter not at absolute
    zero.
  • Absolute zero- lowest possible temperature.

4
Characteristics
  • Wavelength- distance from one crest to the next.
  • Visible light is the only form the human eye can
    see.
  • Electromagnetic E can be separated into two
    groups long-wave and short-wave
  • visible light is the middle

5
E. E and the Environment
  • 5 things can happen when energy hits an object
  • Refracted- bent as it passes through.
  • Reflected- bounces off.
  • Scattered- refracted or reflected in all
    directions.
  • Transmitted- passed through the material.
  • Absorbed- taken into the material.

6
Absorbtion
  • Surface characteristics determine amount of E E
    that can be absorbed.
  • Darker surfaces can absorb more E.
  • Rougher surfaces absorb more E.
  • The more effective a material is at absorbing E
    E, the better it is at radiating it.

7
Transfer of E
  • E moves from areas of High concentration to L
    concentration.
  • Areas of highs are called sources. Areas of lows
    are called sinks.
  • Thermal E- energy of the motions of atoms and
    molecules.
  • Dynamic Equilibrium- a region loses and gains
    equal amounts of energy.

8
Methods of Transfer
  • 3 ways
  • Conduction- E is transferred from one molecule to
    another when they vibrate.
  • Convection- E is transferred by movement in
    fluids.
  • Radiation- E is transferred by electromagnetic
    waves.

9
Mechanical E
  • All the E of an object not related to the
    individual movements of the atoms and molecules.
  • Kinetic E- an object in motion.
  • Potential E- stored E. The more mass that is
    involved, the more potential E.
  • Potential E can be transformed into kinetic E.

10
Transformation of Electromag. Wavelength
  • When E E is abosorbed and re-radiated the
    wavelength is longer than when it was absorbed.

11
Temperature and Heat
  • Temperature of an object or region is directly
    related to the amount heat, or thermal E in the
    object or region.
  • Temperature- the measure of the average kinetic E
    of the particles of a body of matter.

12
Heat and Thermal E
  • When one object has a higher temp. than another,
    some of the E will be transferred to the cooler
    object.
  • The amount of E transferred is measured in
    calories.
  • Calorie- amount of heat needed to raise the temp.
    of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

13
Specific Heat
  • The amount of energy it takes to bring any object
    up one degree Celsius.
  • ex. Specific heat of H2O is 1
  • Specific heat of a certain rock is 0.2
  • Specific heat is the resistance of an object to
    heat up or cool down.

14
Heat E and the States of Matter
  • An increase or decrease in the amount of E can
    cause matter to change states.
  • Melting- from solid to liquid
  • Solidification or freezing- liquid to solid
  • Evaporation- liquid to a gas
  • Condensation- gas to a liquid
  • Sublimation- gas directly to a solid or from a
    solid to a gas.

15
Earths E Supply
  • Some comes from Earths interior
  • Most comes from the sun

16
Solar E
  • Sun gives off all kinds of EE
  • Greatest intensity is visible light.
  • Nuclear Fusion

17
Earths E
  • Most E comes from the nuclear decay of
    radioactive materials.
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