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Vector control

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Vector control Vectors Spraying Mosquito nets Environmental modifications * Vectors and diseases in emergency Anopheles Aedes Housefly Diseases Malaria Dengue and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vector control


1
Vector control
  • Vectors
  • Spraying
  • Mosquito nets
  • Environmental modifications

2
Vectors and diseases in emergency
Anopheles Aedes Housefly
Diseases Malaria Dengue and yellow fever Diarrhoeal diseases, skin and eye infections
Larval Exposed to sunlight and associated to floating vegetation in pools, quiet places in slow-running streams, rice fields. Also in artificial containers Above the water line in pools with clean water. The preferred habitats are water storage tanks and jars inside the and outside houses. Buried on rotting organic material (human (garbage, excreta).
Adult Active between sunset and sunrise Rest indoors and outdoor sheltered resting sites Bite mainly in the morning or evening. Hey rest often outdoors. Active during the day. Resting indoors.
3
Vector borne disease risk
  • Assessment of potential risk
  • Clinical evidence
  • Factors influencing the risk
  • Immune status of the population
  • Movement of population from a non endemic to an
    endemic area
  • Pathogen type and prevalence
  • Vector species, behaviour and ecology
  • Exposure to vectors (shelter type)

4
Control measures
  • Houseflies
  • Improvement of environmental sanitation (excreta
    disposal and waste management)
  • Promotion hygiene practices
  • Fly traps
  • Control with insecticides
  • Mosquitoes
  • Personal protection
  • Making houses and shelter insect proof (Zero
    fly insecticide plastic sheeting)
  • Insecticide spraying
  • Environmental modifications to prevent breeding
    (drainage)

5
Personal protection
  • Bed nets
  • Repellents
  • Mosquito coils

6
Sphere
  • All disaster affected people have the knowledge
    and the means to protect themselves from diseases
    and nuisance vectors that are likely to represent
    a significant risk to health or well-being.

7
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)
  • LLINs are nets treated in the factory with an
    insecticide incorporated into the net fabric
    which makes the insecticide last at least 3 years
    of recommended use under field conditions.
  • PermaNet which is treated with 55mg/m2 of
    deltamethrin to coat fibres.

8
LLINs distribution in emergency
  • Target population Children U5 Pregnant women
  • 1 LLIN per household (mother sleeps together with
    the newborn).
  • House-to-house visits to ensure proper hanging
    and usage. This might be integrated in ongoing
    health programmes.
  • In special and urgent situations, this activity
    can be linked to indoor residual spraying (IRS).

Niger Red Cross
9
Exercise Design a clean up campaign
  • Design a clean up campaign for a community,
    look at
  • What areas/item in the community need to be
    addressed?
  • What is your key message
  • How will you conduct the clean up campaign?
  • What is your timeframe?

9
10
Environmental modifications
obstructed roof gutters)
tyre
Dense vegetation
Water storage tank
Water container
tins
11
Insecticide spraying
  • Specialist attention and involvement of local
    authorities
  • Detailed vector study its resting and biting
    behaviour and its susceptibility to insecticides.
  • Trained personnel and protection equipment.
  • Acceptance of space-spraying by communities.

12
Sphere
  • The numbers of diseases vectors that pose a risk
    to peoples health and nuisance vectors that pose
    a risk to peoples well-being are kept to an
    acceptable level.
  • Chemical vector control measures are carried out
    in a manner that ensures that staff, the people
    affected by the disaster and the local
    environment are adequately protected. And avoids
    creating resistance to the substances used.

13
Wall Spraying - Efficacy
  • Mosquito resting behaviour
  • Mosquito susceptibility to insecticides
    (resistance)
  • Suitability of wall surface for spraying
  • Suitability of insecticide
  • Cooperation of community and local authorities

14
Wall spraying technique
15
Spraying operation
  • Calculating total surface area to be sprayed
  • Calculating the amount of insecticide needed for
    one round of spraying
  • Personnel required
  • 1 person / 5 Ha / 8-10 houses / day
  • Maximum 4 hours / day
  • Equipment required (spare parts, protection
    equipment)
  • Calculating the time needed to cover the area
    (spraying time transport evacuation
    pressurizing or filling with fuel).

16
ERU WATSAN Mod.15 Spraying equipment
  • 3 Backpack sprayer (manual, 15 l, 5 bar)
  • 1 backpack sprayer (motorized)
  • Insecticide (Lambda Cihalotrin) (3 bottles 250
    grs.)
  • 30 Overalls
  • 30 Globes
  • 30 Face half mask for insecticide application
  • 30 Rubber boots

17
Deltametrine
  • Pyrethroid insecticide kills insects on contact
    and through digestion.
  • Available as 2.5 water-dispersible powder. At a
    dosage of 0.05 g/m2 effective for mosquitoes -
    it usually remains effective for 2-3 months.
  • Toxic for human by inhalation or direct contact
    (gloves and mask are key protective gear)
  • High toxicity to fish, bees and aquatic
    herbivorous insects
  • In soil, degradation occurs within 1-2 weeks.
  • There is no degradation in storage for 6 months
    at 40 degrees C.
  • It is considered stable when exposed to air and
    sunlight.

18
Community involvement
  • The efficient execution of IRS (indoor residual
    spraying) where necessary
  • The appropriate use of LLINs
  • Effective disposal of household solid waste
  • Effective household drainage
  • Control of flies and mosquitoes associated with
    excreta disposal

19
Bibliography
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