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Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion

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Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion WILF: How does the presence of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam within the same region influence the development of the region? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion


1
Middle East The Birthplace of Religion
  • WILF How does the presence of Judaism,
    Christianity, and Islam within the same region
    influence the development of the region?

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Judaism
  • Oldest major religion
  • First to teach monotheism
  • Trace ancestry to Abraham
  • Descendants of Hebrews (Israelites)
  • Three main sects Orthodox, Conservative,
    Reformed

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Lineage is 4,000 years old
6
Beliefs/Teachings
  • Only one God
  • Based on their holy book how to worship how to
    live a moral life
  • Pass on Jewish traditions to their families
  • Supreme God Yahweh

7
Covenant with God
  • Special agreement/ promise with God
  • Ten Commandments from Moses
  • Place of Worship- Gods Chosen People would
    live in a promised land called Canaan (Now
    Jerusalem, Israel)
  • Assures Jews of Gods love protection

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Holy Book
  • Hebrew Bible, called the Torah (Old Testament)
  • First 5 books crucial
  • Contains basic laws describes history
  • Talmud, serves as guide

10
Structure
  • Synagogue - house of worship
  • Rabbi - spiritual leader
  • Does not actively try to convince others to
    convert to Jewish faith
  • Give to the needy to create justice in the world

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Holy Days/Festivals
  • Sabbath (Day of Rest) is Saturday
  • Rosh Hashanah, New Year
  • Yom Kippur, Day of Atonement
  • Hanukkah, Feast of Lights
  • Bar Mitzvah/Bat Mitzvah
  • Passover, freedom from Egypt

13
Orthodox Customs
  • Do not eat pork or shellfish
  • Store meat milk products separately
  • Separate sets of utensils
  • Kosher, means ritually correct
  • Do not work, travel, or carry money on the Sabbath

14
Christianity
  • Largest religious group
  • monotheistic
  • based on life teachings of Jesus, the Messiah
    almost 2000 years old
  • humanity can achieve salvation through Jesus
  • 3 main sects Roman Catholic, Orthodox,
    Protestant

15
Spread of Christianity
  • Spread orally by 12 apostles
  • first Christians were Jews
  • New Testament, written record of life teachings
    of Jesus
  • Started with the Birth Of Jesus in Bethlehem,
    Israel

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Beliefs/Teachings
  • Only one God
  • God created the universe
  • God sent son, Jesus, to help people fulfill their
    religious duties
  • Holy Trinity, God has 3 parts
  • 2 important practices baptism Holy Communion

18
Holy Book/Holy Days
  • Bible, Old New Testament
  • Sabbath
  • Lent, preparation for Easter
  • Palm Sunday
  • Good Friday
  • Easter
  • Christmas

19
Islam
  • Fastest spreading religion
  • originated in Middle East around 610 A.D.
  • Muhammad had a vision calling him to be a prophet
    of God
  • Two major sects Sunni Shii

20
Spread of Islam
  • First spread orally
  • Koran, holy book
  • Muslims consider the Koran the words of God as
    spoken to Muhammad

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Beliefs/Teachings
  • Monotheistic
  • Belief in series of prophets, including Moses
    Jesus
  • Belief in a Day of Judgment
  • forbids lying, stealing, adultery, murder
  • Belief in Gods mysterious will

23
Holy Book/Holy Days
  • Koran, contains history of Muhammads search for
    God
  • Outlines goal living according to Gods guidance
  • Foundation for Islamic social law
  • Moral behavior
  • Muhammad's birthday

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Customs
  • Five Pillars Faith, Prayer, Alms (2.5),
    Fasting, Pilgrimage
  • Dietary laws, do not allow pork or alcohol
  • Major celebration when a child memorizes the
    entire Koran
  • Mosque, holy place of worship
  • Imam, prayer leader, selected by the followers

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Comparison
  • all three are monotheistic
  • all three acknowledge Abraham as the patriarch of
    their faith
  • each has a holy book
  • each has a specific place of worship
  • each one has a different view about Jesus Christ
  • some of these religions share common holy sites
    in the region but also have their own unique holy
    sites
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