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BLOOD

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Title: BLOOD


1
BLOOD
Chapter 19
2
Functions of Blood
  • Transport of
  • Gases, nutrients, waste products
  • Processed molecules
  • Regulatory molecules
  • Regulation of pH and osmosis
  • Maintenance of body temperature
  • Protection against foreign substances
  • Clot formation

3
Composition of Blood
  • Plasma55
  • Formed elements45
  • Red blood cells (RBC)erythrocytes
  • White blood cells (WBC)leukocytes
  • Plateletsthrombocytes

4
Composition of Blood
5
Formed Elements
  • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  • White blood cells (leukocytes)
  • Granulocytes
  • Neutrophils
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
  • Agranulocytes
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Platelets (thrombocytes)

6
Production of Formed Elements
  • Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis Process of blood
    cell production
  • Stem cells All formed elements derived from
    single population

7
Hematopoiesis
8
Concept Check
  • What are the functions of blood?
  • -transportation, regulation of pH, maintain body
  • temperature, protection, clot formation
  • What types of things does it transport?
  • -gases, nutrients, waste products, molecules
  • What are the three types of cells in blood?
  • -erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
  • What is most blood made out of?
  • -plasma
  • What is the process of blood cell formation
    called?
  • -hematopoesis

9
ErythrocytesRBC
  • Mature RBC
  • Contain no nucleus
  • Contain no organelles
  • Is a biconcave, disk shape
  • Average life span is 120 days
  • Filled with hemoglobinprotein that can carry up
    to 4 atoms of oxygen
  • Anemialack of iron in hemoglobin
  • CO2 transported in plasma and RBC

10
Leukocytes
  • Types
  • Neutrophils Small phagocytic cells
  • Eosinophils Reduce inflammation
  • Basophils Release histamine and increase
    inflammatory response
  • Lymphocytes Immunity
  • Monocytes Largest WBCs become macrophages
  • Protect body against microorganisms remove dead
    cells debris
  • Movements
  • Ameboid-pseudopodia
  • Diapedesis- move through the walls of blood
    vessels
  • Chemotaxis- move toward chemicals

11
LeukocytesWBC
  • WBCs are outnumbered by RBCs 7001
  • Differential WBC count will show any abnormal
    number of WBCs.
  • Leukopeniadecreased of WBCs
  • Leukocytosisincreased of WBCs

12
Platelets- Thrombocytes
  • Average life span is 7-10 days
  • Function coagulation
  • AKA blood clotting
  • Hemostasisstoppage of blood flow
  • Platelets will stick to damaged lining of the
    vessel to form a platelet plug
  • Proteins released to attract more platelets
  • Substances released to cause vasoconstriction

13
Thrombocytes
  • Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in
    red bone marrow

14
Concept Check
  • What are some characteristics of RBCs?
  • -no nucleus or organelles, bioconcave disk
    shaped, contain hemoglobin
  • What are some characteristics of WBCs?
  • -outnumbered by RBCs, live only a few days
  • Why are there so many different kinds of WBCs?
  • -each have different functions
  • What is the function of a thrombocyte?
  • -coagulation (clot blood)

15
Blood Grouping
  • Determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface
    of RBCs
  • Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC
    antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping)
    or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs
  • Groups
  • ABO and Rh
  • Most common blood type O
  • Most rare blood type AB-

16
ABO Blood Groups
17
Blood Types
Type Antigen present Antibody present
A Antigen A Antibody B
B Antigen B Antibody A
AB Antigen A B None
O None Antibody A B
18
Rh Blood Group
  • First studied in rhesus monkeys
  • Types
  • Rh positive Have these antigens present on
    surface of RBCs
  • Rh negative Do not have these antigens present
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
  • Mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that cross
    placenta and cause agglutination and hemolysis of
    fetal RBCs

19
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
20
Plasma
  • 90 water
  • 10 solutes
  • 6-8 proteinsused in blood clotting antibody
    dispersal
  • 2 other stuff

21
Plasma
  • Liquid part of blood
  • Pale yellow made up of 90 water, 10 other
  • Colloid Liquid containing suspended substances
    that dont settle out
  • Albumin Important in regulation of water
    movement between tissues and blood
  • Globulins Immune system or transport molecules
  • Fibrinogen Responsible for formation of blood
    clots

22
Hemostasis
  • Arrest of bleeding
  • Events preventing excessive blood loss
  • Vascular spasm Vasoconstriction of damaged blood
    vessels
  • Platelet plug formation
  • Coagulation or blood clotting

23
Fibrinolysis
  • Clot dissolved by activity of plasmin, an enzyme
    which hydrolyzes fibrin

24
CoagulationBlood Clotting
  • Uses the proteins in the plasma
  • prothrombin (protein)converted into thrombin
    (enzyme) by thromboplastin released in platelets
  • Soluble fibrinogen (protein)converted into
    strands of insoluble fibrin by thrombin
  • Fibrin makes a mesh of fibers that trap RBCs and
    platelets to cause the clot.

25
Anticoagulants (antithrombins)
  • Act against thrombin to prevent production of
    fibrin
  • Heparinnatural anticoagulant (blood thinner)

26
Concept Check
  • What is the difference between clotting and
  • clumping?
  • -clotting is natural clumping is not can cause
  • problems
  • Why are there so many steps to clot the blood?
  • -bc they are needed to work together to perform
  • their functions preventing excessive blood loss
  • What is the use of an anticoagulant?
  • -blood thinner
  • What are the steps of hemostasis?
  • -vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation,
  • coagulation

27
Diagnostic Blood Tests
  • Type and crossmatch
  • Complete blood count
  • Red blood count
  • Hemoglobin measurement
  • Hematocrit measurement
  • White blood count
  • Differential white blood count
  • Clotting

28
Hematocrit
  • Volume of blood (RBC WBC) in a given sample

29
Blood Disorders
  • Hemophilia-clotting absent
  • Thrombocytopenia- of platelets reduced chronic
    bleeding
  • Leukemia-cancer of bone marrow abnormal
    production of 1 or more WBC types
  • Septicemia-blood poisoning spread of
    microorganisms toxins by blood
  • Malaria-caused by a protozoan (plasmodium) by a
    mosquito
  • Infectious mononucleosis-virus that infects
    lymphocytes (B cells)
  • Hepatitis-infection of the liver by virus
  • Erythrocytosis RBC overabundance
  • Anemia Deficiency of hemoglobin
  • Iron-deficiency
  • Pernicious-inadequate vitamin B12
  • Hemorrhagic-loss of blood (ulcer, trauma)
  • Hemolytic-RBCs rupture destroyed
  • Sickle-cell-hereditary abnormal hemoglobin shape
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