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Chapter A1.2 Human Body Systems

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Chapter A1.2 Human Body Systems The Circulatory System The circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes through the body in the blood. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter A1.2 Human Body Systems


1
Chapter A1.2 Human Body Systems
2
The Circulatory System
  • The circulatory system transports oxygen,
    nutrients, and wastes through the body in the
    blood.
  • The liquid part of the blood, called plasma, is
    mostly water.
  • Plasma also contains dissolved nutrients and
    waste products.
  • The waste product in blood is what we call carbon
    dioxide.

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  • The solid part of blood contains red blood cells
    and white blood cells.
  • Red blood cells absorb oxygen and deliver it to
    the organs.
  • White blood cells help the body fight infection.
    They attack and destroy the germs and viruses and
    bacteria that enter the body.

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  • Blood also contains platelets tiny pieces of
    blood cells inside membranes.
  • Platelets cause blood cells to clot when a cut or
    open wound occurs.
  • They also repair damage to your blood vessels.
  • The heart pumps blood through blood vessels. The
    oxygen rich blood flows through the body through
    arteries, and returns to the heart and lungs
    through veins.

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  • Capillaries- are blood vessels so small that the
    red blood cells have to travel through single
    file.
  • There are capillaries throughout the body so that
    oxygen can reach every part of your body.

6
The Respiratory System
  • When you breathe, you draw air into your lungs.
  • The air is filtered by tiny hairs inside your
    nose and warmed by capillaries.
  • The warmed air then travels down your trachea, or
    windpipe.
  • The trachea branches into smaller tubes called
    bronchi.

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  • Each bronchi tube leads to one of the lungs.
  • In the lungs, the tubes divide smaller and
    smaller.
  • At the end of the smallest tubes, there are tiny
    air sacs called alveoli.
  • The walls of the alveoli are only one cell thick.
  • The blood coming from the heart contains much
    carbon dioxide.

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  • Carbon dioxide diffuses through the walls of the
    alveoli and then into the air you will breathe
    out.
  • When you breathe in, the air diffuses through the
    alveoli and into the red blood cells. The oxygen
    rich blood then flows back to the heart. The
    heart then pumps the oxygenated blood
    throughout your body.

9
The Digestive System
  • Digestion starts as soon as you chew your food.
    Your chewing breaks the food into smaller pieces
    and mixes with your saliva.
  • Saliva moistens the food and begins to break down
    the starchy foods into sugars.
  • When you swallow, food goes through your
    esophagus, a long tube from your mouth to your
    stomach.

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  • Juices in your stomach containing acid and other
    chemicals break down the proteins.
  • After several hours in your stomach, the digested
    food moves into your small intestine.
  • In the small intestine, more chemicals break down
    the food. Nutrients from the food are now able
    to diffuse through the villi, tiny finger like
    structures, into the blood.

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  • Undigested food then travels to the large
    intestine, where water and minerals pass into the
    blood, and non-needed material are removed from
    the body.
  • Two other organs aid in digestion. The liver
    produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder
    until you need it. The pancreas produces a fluid
    that calms stomach acid and other chemicals that
    help complete digestion.

12
The Excretory System
  • The waste left over from the circulatory system
    must be removed from the blood. The food
    material not used by the body must be removed
    from the intestine. This is the job of the
    excretory system.
  • Cell wastes include carbon dioxide and ammonia.
  • Ammonia travels to the liver where it is
    converted into urea.

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  • The urea then travels by way of the blood to the
    kidneys.
  • The urea, water and other wastes then form urine
    and it flows from the kidney to the bladder
    through tubes called ureters.
  • You empty the bladder when it is full through a
    tube called the urethra.

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  • The body gets rid of wastes in other ways too.
    When you exercise you get warm and sweat. Sweat
    is a salty liquid that cools your body when it
    evaporates.
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