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The first and second Taranaki Wars

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Title: The first and second Taranaki Wars


1
Presentation 2
Orlando Norie, 1832-1901 Fourteenth Foot
attacking Waikato Pa, 1863 Alexander Turnbull
Library A-113-025
2
The Taranaki Wars are regarded as one of the main
chapters of the New Zealand Wars (sometimes
called the Land Wars), which lasted over 40 years.
3
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
4
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitaake (circa 1846-1847),
unknown photographer, copy photograph. Collection
of Puke Ariki, New Plymouth (PHO2002-442)
Te Teira Manuka, Chief of Puke-Kowhatu of Te
Atiawa (date unknown) Unknown photographer Reprodu
ction of carte-de-visite Collection of Puke
Ariki, New Plymouth (PHO2008-1759)
Governor Gore Browne Image Wikimedia Commons
5
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
Plan of the Pekapeka Block, Waitara (Inset, Te
Kohia pa, called the L pa from its
shape.) From The New Zealand Wars A History of
the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period
Volume I (184564), James Cowan, 1955. The New
Zealand Electronic Text Centre.
6
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
The native pah at Waitera sic from the bar.
March 9th 1861, by Henry James Warre (1819-98).
Image Alexander Turnbull Library A-236-020
7
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
At Te Kohia, Gore Brownes troops stormed the pa
on the morning of the 18 March, only to discover
the pa had been abandoned. This was a strategy
the Maori would repeat again and again.
Sarten et al, 1860 by Murray Moorhead, c.1980s.
This is a modern interpretation of the attack of
Te Kohia Pa, Waitara in 1860 by the Taranaki
Mounted Volunteers. Ink watercolour on paper.
Collection of Puke Ariki, New Plymouth (A97.014)
8
The First Taranaki War 1860-61
After Waitara there were several more battles,
and the Government troops lost many of them.
Fighting continued through until 19 March 1861
when a truce was made at a place known as Te Arei
(The Barrier).
Battle of Waireka Golds expedition to
Warea Puketakauere Huirangi Orongomaihangi Waika
to defeated at Mahoetahi Matarikoriko (the first
pa in the line of defense for Te Arei. It was
abandoned by Maori on December 31) Maori attack
No. 3 redoubt Ceasefire at Te Arei
March 28 April 24-30 June 29 September
9-12 October 12 November 6 December 30 January
23 March 19
9
Taihoa! Stop! Its time to digest some of this
information. Turn to your worksheet and work
through the tasks next to Taiaha 1.
10
Images from the Wars
From The New Zealand Wars A History of the Maori
Campaigns and the Pioneering Period Volume I
(184564), p 176, by James Cowan, 1955
Image The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
11
Images from the Wars
Whilst all this was going on, Maori built pa to
protect their land and people and the
Government troops built stockades, like this one
at Bell Block.
From The New Zealand Wars A History of the
Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period Volume
I (184564), by James Cowan, 1955.
Image The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
12
Images from the Wars
In August 1860, many settlers fled New Plymouth
as refugees, to Nelson
A view from the sea, showing some detail of
buildings near the water's edge, with Mt Taranaki
in the background. 'Friendly natives' stockade
and Carrington Road Blockhouse are inscribed
below the drawing on the left. From, New Plymouth
during the war. By Georgina Burne Hetley
(1832?-1898). Image Alexander Turnbull Library
A-090-006
13
Images from the Wars
From Taranaki Punch, a local satirical magazine,
came cartoons from the settlers perspective.
The inscription reads Maori (loq) Please when
will it be convenient to begin burning the houses
in the town, for we have nearly done the job
outside.
Taranaki Punch, Vol 1, No. 10, 27 February 1861,
p5 Editor Garland William Woon Collection of Puke
Ariki, New Plymouth (ARC2002-538)
14
Images from the Wars
The War-Dance This depicts the tutu-waewae,
or leaping-parade of a Maori war-party,
preliminary to marching against the enemy. In the
Taranaki Wars of the 1860s, the battle songs
shouted by the leader and responded to in chorus
by his men frequently invoked the sacred guardian
mountain Taranaki (Mt. Egmont), seen in the
background of this picture. From a painting by
A. H. Messenger from Hero Stories of New
Zealand, By James Cowan, 1935.
Image The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
15
All the while, the troops kept coming
Edwin Harris ca 1810-1895 New Plymouth, 3
August 1860. Troops of the 40th Regiment being
ferried ashore by lighters from H. M. S.
Victoria, early evening, with H. M. S. Airedale,
Paddle steamer Tasmanian Maid, brigantine George
Henderson and a schooner. Image courtesy of the
Alexander Turnbull Library. C-030-013
16
and building stockades
This painting shows conical military tents in the
foreground and Marsland Hill Stockade on the
central hill in the middle distance, with a flag
flying. To the right are St Mary's Church and
several houses.
Poverty Square, New Plymouth. By Charles Emilius
Gold. Image courtesy of the Alexander Turnbull
Library A-090-009
17
Methods and equipment for fighting
A musket, above, and an Enfield below.
A 12 pound Howitzer canon.
A Beaumont-Adams patent 5-shot revolver
18
Methods and equipment for fighting
In the various battles, it was not just musket
fire, but also hand-to-hand combat.
Traditional Maori weapons including mere pounamu,
patu onewa and toki poutangata. Image Auckland
War Memorial Museum Library GN672.w36p
19
Case study What happened at Puketakauere
In early June, 1860, Te Atiawa and their allies
Ngati Maniapoto began building a pa at
Puketakauere (?), and another adjacent pa,
Onukukaitara.
Image Google maps.
20
Case study What happened at Puketakauere
On 23 June when a Government party of soldiers
approached the Maori pa they were fired on.
Colonel Gold immediately authorised an attack. He
had Major Thomas Nelson under him, who commanded
350 troops. There were 200 Maori in
Puketakauere pa, under Hapurona, Kingis
commander.
Copy of map showing British and Maori troop
movements in the Battle of Puketakauere, 27 June
1860. From Historic Places Trust, March 1984,
Nigel Prickett.
21
Case study What happened at Puketakauere
At 7am on 27 June, 1860, the two 24-pound
howitzers of Major Nelsons troops opened fire.
The ensuing attack was described by his survivors
as hotter than anything in the great Indian
Battles or in the attack on the Redan in the
Crimea.
The Maori had been waiting and ambushed the
troops. Many troops got stuck in the swamp, or
struggled up the hills. They were split, trying
to fight two pa, whilst the Maori were only
fighting one.
Hapurona had cleverly drawn the troops into
fighting a battle on his terms, and he used both
concealment and deception to his advantage.
22
Aerial view of the pa sites Onukukaitara (right)
and Puketakauere (left). Photographer Nigel
Prickett, Collection of Puke Ariki, New Plymouth,
PHO2004-306.
23
(No Transcript)
24
Pratt advanced with heavy artillery and about 900
men from Waitara towards Te Arei building the
first of eight redoubts on the site of Kairau pa
on 30 December 1860.
Image From The New Zealand Wars A History of
the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period
Volume I (184564), By James Cowan, 1955.
Image The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
25
The Seat of War, North Taranaki Showing
redoubts and line of sap to Te Arei, on the
Waitara, from The New Zealand Wars A History of
the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period
Volume I (184564), by James Cowan, 1955
Image The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
26
1861 January 22 Pratts sap begun from No. 3
Redoubt Some 1487m of sap was constructed during
the advance on Te Arei. March 19 Truce at Te
Arei
27
The sap at Te Arei today
Image Puke Ariki
Image Hamish Tallon
28
Taihoa! Stop! Its time to digest some of this
information. Turn to your worksheet and work
through the tasks next to Taiaha 2.
29
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
  • The cease-fire was maintained for over two years,
    and there is no record that Maori in Taranaki
    returned to arms once their consent to the peace
    terms had been given.
  • Following the peace agreement, Pekapeka remained
    occupied by the military, (and some other Waitara
    Maori land) pending the inquiry. Meanwhile, the
    hapu of coastal Taranaki iwi, assisted by Ngati
    Ruanui from the south, held on to Omata and
    Tataraimaka. Although not party to the peace
    terms, they abided the arrangement and New
    Plymouth was not attacked.

30
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
Wiremu Kingi te Rangitaake was grief-stricken at
the loss of Waitara after all, he had promised
his dying father that he would never give it
up. He left Taranaki and some of his followers
spent the next 14 years living inland with his
Ngati Raukawa relatives. In later years he
joined the movement at Parihaka with Te Whiti o
Rongomai, but he had lost all faith in the
Pakeha.
Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitaake (circa 1846-1847),
unknown photographer, copy photograph. Collection
of Puke Ariki, New Plymouth (PHO2002-442)
31
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
Despite the truce, some changes took place
New Zealands parliament at the time, the General
Assembly, passed the Native Lands Act 1862.
Governor George Grey replaced Gore Browne.
32
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
  • In 1863 war broke out again in Taranaki Before
    the promised inquiry into the Pekapeka
    Block/Waitara was made. On 12 March 1863, British
    troops occupied Omata. On 4 April they moved on
    to Tataraimaka, having to cross Maori land to do
    so.
  • Maori debated the Governments breach of the
    truce and the trespass of troops on the Maori
    land between. Maori had become very mindful of
    the need to protect and maintain boundaries.


Tataraimaka
33
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
  • On 4 May, a month after the military had
    reoccupied Tataraimaka, Maori ambushed a military
    patrol group on Maori land at Oakura, between
    Omata and Tataraimaka, and nine British soldiers
    were killed.

Omata
Tataraimaka
34
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
The Ministers agreed to renounce the Waitara
purchase.
BUT
35
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
The British built numerous redoubts and laid
waste to many Maori villages and cultivations.
Bushrangers Redoubt and Camp at Wai-iti,
Pukearuhe District (1871) Francis Hamar Arden.
Watercolour pencil on paper Collection of Puke
Ariki, New Plymouth (A58.490)
36
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
General Chute assumed command in 1865. His
mopping up round the mountain campaign resulted
in the last shots of the Second Taranaki War at
Waikoukou in 1866 near where the future village
of Parihaka would be sited.
Major-General Sir Trevor Chute. c 1865 Unknown
Photographer, Alexander Turnbull Library
PA1-q-196-38-200
37
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
  • Very systematically now, the British government
    troops pushed into new regions seizing more and
    more land and killing Maori and destroying kainga
    whether they resisted or not.
  • In September 1866 the field headquarters of the
    South Taranaki force was established at a redoubt
    built at Waihi (at Normanby) and further raids
    were launched from it in September and October
    against pa and kainga in the interior.

38
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
Photograph of some of the Armed Constabulary in
bush clothing (wearing "shawl-kilts") with group
of Maori men and women. The Maori are seated on
the ground along with some of the Armed
Constabulary. The Armed Constabulary are holding
guns and many of them are wearing hats.
Collection of Puke Ariki, New Plymouth A64.083
39
The Second Taranaki War 1863-66
  • Maori were now weakened and intimidated. This
    period of fighting, that had been far more
    demoralising, relentless, and desperate than the
    First Taranaki War, came to an end in January
    1868.
  • The next decade brought different leaders and
    different tactics, the battles were not over yet.

40
  1. The First Taranaki War Wikipedia entry
  2. Land Wars Star over Pekapeka Block, by Virginia
    Winder, Puke Ariki Treasure Link
  3. The Taranaki Report Kaupapa Tuatahi, accessed
    from www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz
  4. An Ancient Stonghold, by Hugh Barr, Historic
    Places, September 1993
  5. Walking the Taranaki Wars, Pratts Sap at Te
    Arei, by Chris Pugsley, New Zealand Defence
    Quarterly, August 1996
  6. Chapter 12 Te Muru me te Raupatu the Aftermath,
    in Ancestral Landscapes of Taranaki in Taranaki
    Whenua Life Blood Legacy. by Peter Adds, New
    Plymouth, Puke Ariki Museum, 2008.
  7. Taranaki War 1860-2010 Te Ahi Ka Roa, Te Ahi
    Katoro, exhibition notes, Puke Ariki Museum, New
    Plymouth.
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