Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION

Description:

Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION Prof.ssa Luisa Natale http://www.docente.unicas.it/luisa_natale/ email oli59_at_mclink.it FIGURA 2.11 Ingressi di ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:53
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 70
Provided by: unic322
Learn more at: http://www.docente.unicas.it
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION


1
Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION
  • Prof.ssa Luisa Natale
  • http//www.docente.unicas.it/luisa_natale/
  • email oli59_at_mclink.it

2
MOBILITY AND MIGRATION
  • 6. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION THE CASE OF ITALY

3
1. SOURCES OF THE DATA
4
WHAT CAN YOU MEASURE?
  • The flows of migrants from/to Italy
  • The stock of migrants in Italy
  • The irregular and illegal migration

5
  • A more general distinction is between
  • flow data and stock data.
  • flow data allow us to follow the phenomenon
    constantly over time
  • stock data permit us to look in greater depth at
    some aspects, with the possibility of gathering
    more detailed information, perhaps with a larger
    and temporally more concentrated effort e.g. by
    means of a census

6
Knowing flows
7
Importance to detect flows
  • The main aim should be that of knowing the size
    and characteristics of the inflows and outflows
    whose correct calculation would also allow us to
    construct information on the size of immigrant
    populations at various moments

8
  • Collecting data on migratory flows requires
    the existence of a well-organised and
    well-structured statistical system
  • Therefore in the statistical measurement of
    migration, this situation has led us to use stock
    measurements (referring that is to the number of
    migrants present in the population considered at
    a given moment), not only taken together with
    flow data (as would be opportune) but sometimes
    as a clear alternative.

9
  • Stock data - such as that on permits to stay in
    Italy - cannot tell us much about the intensity
    of the flows.
  • Variations in size from one year to another are
    the result of a complex mechanism of arrivals and
    departures leaving only the net balance provided
    for.

10
FLOW DATA OR STOCK DATA?
  • Neither of the two approaches to measuring
    migration phenomena is without its limits.
  • Best situation is based on a combined and
    integrated use of the two levels of information

11
The flows of migrant
  • Italy is one of the Countries of the Union
    that can provide the information required by EU
    Regulation on the flows of immigration and
    emigration.
  • You use the same criteria of the definitions
    of the United Nations and the European
    Commission

12
The flows of migrant in Italy
  • Enrolment (inflows) and cancellation (outflows)
    of the registration to and from foreign countries
  • Information on arrivals and departures by
    citizenship, country of origin, country of
    destination

13
Inflows of non-EU citizens, demographic and
territorial indicators, selected citizenships.
2010, absolute values ??and percent.
Sources elaborations by Istat from Home Office
14
The flows of migrant in Italy
  • Limitations
  • Only the regular movements
  • Distortion of the data due to the regularization
    of the irregular migration
  • Systematic underestimation of the outflow of
    foreigners

15
  • Knowing stocks

16
The stock of the migrant in Italy
  • Foreigners can be divided into at least three
    categories based on the legal status of stay and
    residence
  • stable legal
  • semi-stable legal
  • illegal or irregular

17
The stock of migrant in Italy a typology
  • Legal stable population register and / or
    census.
  • Stable legal and semi-stable residence permits.
  • Irregular or illegal estimates.

18
FOREIGN RESIDENTS, CITIZENS OF COUNTRIES BY
REGION. 1th JANUARY 2011,
Source Istat, Statistica report La
popolazione straniera residente,
19
FOREIGN RESIDENTS BY REGION - 1st January 2011
sources Istat, Statistica report La
popolazione straniera residente, Anno 2011
20
  • Migration and migrant
  • Specific sub-population
  • the population of foreign origin

21
Population of foreign origin in Italy
  • Population of foreign origin is obtained by
    adding to the foreign population these components
  • - foreign immigrants who have become Italian
    (first-generation naturalized immigrants)
  • - the children of foreign immigrants who have
    become Italian (second generation, naturalized).
  • Categories currently detectable only with the
    Census.

22
Knowing stocks and flows of migrant population.
What are the sources?
  • Registers of the population (to measure flows and
    stocks)
  • National Census (to measure stock)
  • Residents permits (to measure the flows/stock)
  • Sample surveys (to measure irregular and illegal
    migration)

23
Register of the population (anagrafe)
  • Register of the population since 1993 provides
    the total annual budget (balance of population)
    and the stock of resident population by country
    of citizenship and sex

24
Last National Census 2001 and 2011
  • It is the only survey that currently allows us to
    identify and quantify the stock of immigrants or
    foreign origin population.
  • It contains questions about the country of birth,
    nationality, the possession of Italian
    citizenship by birth or by acquisition and on
    their previous citizenship.

25
National Census 2001, 2011
  • Distributions of the foreign population
    (immigrant or foreign origin), also based on
    single variables collectivities, sex, age,
    marital status, education level, household
    composition, housing situation, employment, etc.
  • You have a much greater geographical detail of
    other sources (for example, at least
    teoretically, at census tract level) .

26
Residence permits
  • Istat provides reliable data on the number of
    foreigners holding a residence permit, excluding
    duplications and expired documents, since
    1991. The main problem, in some years, is the
    lack of timeliness in the dissemination of the
    revised final data by Istat. A review of files
    prior to 1991 would allow a reconstruction of the
    historical phenomenon since the Eighties. An
    important node is related to children in tow, not
    yet counted. Scarce use of the information on the
    duration of the permit, an information required
    by the European Commission.

27
Resident Permit in Italy, 1992-2011 (a)
Source Istat elaboration from Home Office
Statistics (a) Data refer to individual residence
permit, not comprised minor enroled on the adult
residence permit. Since 2008 Union European
citizens not included.
28
Measure irregular and illegal migration ? Sample
surveys
  • In Italy they are the essential tool of knowledge
    of the characteristics of the phenomenon.
  • Great attention to the methodological aspects, in
    particular to the type of sampling to be used for
    a reference population substantially unknown.
  • Definition of new procedures for identifying
    units to be interviewed, until reaching the
    sampling for community centers

29
The ways to enter illegally
30
Irregular and illegal migration
  • Area on which the stimulating action of the
    European Commission can produce significant
    results. These data are produced regularly by
    national Home Office and collected at the
    European level within the activities of the
    Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange
    on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration
    (CIREFI). It would be desirable to their more
    widespread, a more organic and stable, a critical
    clarification of definitions and concepts of
    reference to allow a more correct and
    comprehensive also to evaluate the effectiveness
    of policies to combat and funding as it does in
    the United States.

31
ITALY IN THE PAST A COUNTRY OF EMIGRATION
32
Migration flows of Italian nationals, 1876-1988
(values in thousands)
32
33
ITALY IN THE PAST A COUNTRY OF EMIGRATION
  • From 1876 to 1980 the total volume of migration
    that involved our country was 26 million people,
    with a return flow of 9 million between 1905 and
    1981 (no data in the previous period)

34
  • 1. Since 1876, the beginning of 1900 a steady
    increase in the number of emigrants up to 1885
    were due to some European countries (France,
    Switzerland, Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire),
    later become important transoceanic migrations to
    the United States, Brazil and Argentina. These
    flows initially came from the regions of northern
    Italy and later from the southern

35
  • 2. From 1900 to 1915 the increase became larger
    each year, affecting some 600 thousand people,
    with a peak equal to 873thousands emigrants in
    1913. 55-60 of the flow was towards transoceanic
    destinations and 50 came from Southern Italy.

36
  • 3. From 1915 to 1918 emigration stopped. 4.
    From 1918 to 1930 period of application of
    fascist policy against migration. Increase weight
    of flows to European countries, mainly France and
    diminishing flows towards United States because
    of the Literacy Act (1917), which prohibited the
    entry of the illiterate population, and Quota
    system applied since 1921. 5. From 1930 to 1945,
    the fascist politics of migration and the Great
    Depression of '29 caused a strong reduction of
    migratory flows from our country and the low
    flows are mainly directed towards European
    countries

37
  • 6. From 1945 to 1976 flows increased with the
    particularity that flows of immigrants arriving
    from the territories ceded to Yugoslavia (200-350
    thousand people involved in the exodus of the
    Italian community) and from former colonies in
    Africa (about 200 thousand refugees) and the
    flows of migrants resulting from bilateral
    agreements with European countries of old
    immigration and some countries outside Europe.
  • After Second World War migration flows were
    determined by the particular economic conditions
    of Italy and host countries prevailing model of
    guest worker migration characterized by short
    duration (significant return flows).

38
  • 6. Everything within legal contexts very
    heterogeneous across countries and others free
    movement in Germany after the creation of the EEC
    stringent controls in Switzerland.
  • This period was also characterized by intense
    internal flows to Italy (prevailing direction
    South-North)
  • In the early 70's net migration for the first
    time became positive because of restrictive
    policies also caused by the first Oil Crisis

39
Population change and net migration in Italy.
1951-2006
Source IRPPS, The italian transition from
emigration to immigration country, Working Paper
n.24, 2009
In the '50s, '60s and '70s the variation of the
population is high and determined by high rates
of natural and positive and negative migration
rates. The migration rate is positive but close
to zero due to the economic downturn that hit
across Europe. In the next two decades the rates
of change are reduced more so to identify Italy
as a country demographically stationary. Lately
a demographic recovery determined by immigration.
39
40
International migration flows, Italy. 1955-2006
( inhabitants)
Source IRPPS, The italian transition from
emigration to immigration country, Working Paper
n.24, 2009
40
41
  • Figure shows from 1955 to the early '70s
    Italy characterized by a negative net migratory
    rate. Positive values ??after 1960 refer to
    corrections due to operations and post-census
    corrections. From 1970 onwards the rate becomes
    increasingly positive and significant. At the
    beginning of the period is determined by return
    flows from the 80s onwards, but is characterized
    by inputs of foreigners in the country (in mid
    90s 80 of inflow was made by foreigners). The
    peaks of the rate observed in the early 2000's
    are linked to the amnesty laws that allowed the
    legalization of many illegal aliens.

41
42
International migration flows, Italian regional
subdivisions. 1955-2006 ( inhabitants)
42
43
  • The analysis of the net migratory rate at
    territorial divisions level shows that Italy, in
    relation to migratory movements, is divided into
    sub-regions. In Central Italy outflows, however,
    can be observed only for short periods in the
    second half of the '50s and '60s. Italy,
    especially the South East, has been characterized
    in the '50s and '60s by prevailing population
    outflows (negative net migration). In the
    current characterization of Italy as a country of
    immigration, the South is excluded. North Western
    and North Eastern Italy reach the same levels of
    immigrants (as a relative value to the population
    of the corresponding distributions) with values
    ??that lie around 9-10 .

43
44
  • The stock of foreign
  • population in Italy.
  • The recent evolution of the resident population
  • (de iure population)

45
FOREIGN RESIDENTS IN ITALY TO JANUARY 1 - YEARS
2002-2011 (THOUSANDS)
Sources Istat, Statistica report La
popolazione straniera residente, 2011
46
FOREIGN RESIDENTS AT 1 January 2010 EU COUNTRIES
(FOR RESIDENTS 100)
Sources Eurostat, Demography
47
FOREIGN RESIDENTS, CITIZENS OF COUNTRIES BY
REGION. 1th JANUARY 2011,
Source Istat, Statistica report La
popolazione straniera residente,
48
RESIDENT FOREIGN POPULATION (x 100 resident). 1ST
JANUARY 2011
RESIDENT FOREIGN POPULATION BY REGION INCREASE
2011/2010

Source own elaboration from Istat, Statistica
report La popolazione straniera residente,
Anno 2011-2010
Fonte Elaborazione dati Istat, Statistica
report La popolazione straniera residente,
Anno 2011-2010
49
Source IRPPS, The italian transition from
emigration to immigration country, Working Paper
n.24, 2009
49
50
Immigration of Foreigners by age, Italy 1990 to
2004 (percent of age groups)
IRPPS, The italian transition from emigration to
immigration country, Working Paper n.24, 2009
50
51
  • We show how in the early period (1991-2005)
    the sex structure was somewhat irregular with a
    small percentage of women in total (values
    ??around 30-35). Today more balanced sex
    structure can be observed ( females ??around
    50). These figures are a summary of reports that
    are manifested in very different ways depending
    on the nationality of the migrants. In the decade
    1995-2004 there is a predominance of men in
    groups from Morocco, Tunisia and Albania and
    opposite values ??for the Philippines and
    Ukraine. Communities that do not show significant
    differences are the Chinese and Romanians.

51
52
  • As concern as age structure, the 20-39 age
    group is dominant throughout the period in
    question. Job search is the main reason why
    people arrive to Italy. The percentage of age
    lt19 years fluctuates around 20 makes you
    understand how family reunions take place in
    later migration of the "breadwinner" and how the
    migration projects are medium to long term.

53
  • The stock .
  • Recent evolution of the present population the
    semi-stable legal population
  • (residence permits)

54
Resident Permit in Italy, 1992-2011 (a)
Source Istat elaboration from Home Office
Statistics (a) Data refer to individual residence
permit, not comprised minor enroled on the adult
residence permit. Since 2008 Union European
citizens not included.
55
Residence permit by regional subdivision.
1992-2011, absolute value (a).
Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics (a) Data refer to individual
residence permit, not comprised minor enroled on
the adult residence permit. Since 2008 Union
European citizens not included. No Oceania
evolution (too little figures)
56
Absolute and percentage value (2008-2011
increase). First five communities. Italy, non EU
residence permits.

Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
57
Age pyramid non-EU citizens residing, compared
with the total Italian population- 1January
2011, values.
Source own elaboration from ISTAT
58
Age pyramid of non-EU citizens legally residing,
compared with that of Morocco and Ukraine - 1
January 2011, value .
Source own elaboration from ISTAT
59
Non-EU citizens legally resident, by
province-January 2011, absolute values ??(a).
. Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
60
Non-EU citizens legally residing in the total
population, by province-January 1, 2011, absolute
values ??
Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
61
Non-EU citizens under 18 years born in Italy for
community-selected January 1, 2011, values
(share of the overall child of that collectivity.
Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
62
Non-EU citizens legally resident, indicators for
selected nationalities and types of
residence-January 1, 2011
Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics a) data refers to non-EU citizens aged
60 years
63
Permits of residence by reason of permit,
selected communities 1 January 2011, absolute
values and
Source ISTAT elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
64
  • Flows towards Italy
  • Recent evolution of the present population the
    annual flows of
  • new residence permits

65
Inflows of non-EU citizens, demographic and
territorial indicators, selected citizenships.
2010, absolute values ??and percent.
Sources elaborations by Istat from Home Office
66
FIGURA 2.11 Ingressi di cittadini non comunitari
per provincia - Anno 2010, valori assoluti e
percentuale sul totale dei cittadini non
comunitari regolarmente soggiornanti(a) Valori
assoluti Valori percentuali
Inflows of non-EU citizens, 2010, absolute
values ??and percent. Valori assoluti
Valori percentuali

Source ISTAT elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
67
Inflows of non-EU citizens by reason of permit of
residences, selected citizenships. 2010, absolute
values ??and percent.
Sources elaborations by Istat from Home Office
68
Inflows non EU citizens by seasonal work per 100
inflows by provinces -2010,
Source own elaboration from Home Office
Statistics
69
Materials
  • Bonifazi, C. e S. Strozza
  • 2006 Conceptual framework and data collection in
    international migration, in G. Caselli, J.
    Vallin and G. Wunsch (eds), Demography Analysis
    and Synthesis, Vol. IV, Elsevier, San Diego.
About PowerShow.com