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Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Antibiotics. Drug Resistance of Bacteria

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Title: Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Antibiotics. Drug Resistance of Bacteria


1
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Antibiotics. Drug
Resistance of Bacteria
Vinnitsa National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University / Department of microbiology
2
Chemotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapeutic agents
  • Antibiotics
  • Chemotherapeutic index

3
Development of chemotherapy
  • Paul Erlich found that dye Trypan Red was active
    against the trypanosome (causative agent of
    African sleeping sickness) in 1904
  • In 1910 P. Erlich discovered the arsenical
    compounds and one of their was active against the
    syphilis spirochete (later was called Salvarsan)
  • Cherhard Domagk discovered sulfonamides (red
    streptocide) that were effective for treatment of
    streptococci and staphylococci infections in 1935
    (Nobel Prize in 1939)
  • In 1929 A.Fleming got penicillin, a first
    antibiotic
  • In 1939 penicillin was produced and purified by
    chemists H.Flory and E.Chain (A.Fleming, H.Flory
    and E.Chain received the Nobel Prize in 1945)
  • Selman Waksman announced in 1944 that he had
    found a new antibiotic streptomycin (he received
    Nobel Prize in 1952)

4
Chemotherapeutic Index (CTI)
  •  

5
Classification of chemotherapeutic agents
according to target (general microbial group they
act against)
  • Antimicrobial drugs
  • Antiviral drugs
  • Antifungal drugs
  • Antiprotozoan drugs
  • Antitumoral drugs

6
Classification of chemotherapeutic agents
  • Narrow-spectrum drugs
  • Broad-spectrum drugs
  • Specific-spectrum drugs (antituberculous,
    antiviral, etc.)

7
Classification of chemotherapeutic agents
  • Due to their total effect
  • With cidal action
  • With static action
  • Due to their manufacture
  • Natural
  • Semi synthetic
  • Synthetic

8
Chemical classification of CTD
  • Heavy metal derivates
  • Sulfonamides
  • Diaminopyrimidins
  • Analogs of iso-nicotinic acid
  • Nitrofuran derivatives
  • Quinolones
  • Chinoxalines
  • Oxychinolones
  • Azoles
  • Metronidazole
  • Alkaloid preparations
  • Chinine derivate

9
Antibiotics
  • According to origin antibiotics are subdivided
    into next groups
  • Antibiotics produced by fungi.
  • Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes.
  • Antibiotics produced by bacteria
  • Plant antibiotics (phytoncides)
  • Animal antibiotics (lysozyme, interferons)

10
Mechanism of antibiotic action
  • Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
  • Protein synthesis inhibitors
  • Cell membrane disruptors
  • Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors

11
Antibiotic action onto bacterial cell
12
Chemical antibiotics classification
  • Penicillins
  • Cephalosporins
  • Carbapinems
  • Monobactams
  • Vancomycin
  • Bacitracin
  • Cycloserine
  • Antitumoral antibiotics
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tetracyclines
  • Macrolides
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Linezolid
  • Rifampin
  • Polymyxin
  • Polyenes

13
Chemical structure of ß-lactams
Penicillin nucleus
Cephalosporin nucleus
Carbapenem nucleus
Monobactam nucleus
14
B-lactams influence onto bacterial cell wall
15
Chemical structure of gentamicin
Chemical structure of a tetracycline
Chemical structure of chloramphenicol
Chemical structure of lincomycin
16
Action of aminoglycosides onto protein synthesis
17
Determination of antimicrobial effectiveness of
chemotherapeutic agents
  • Dilution susceptibility tests
  • Disk diffusion tests
  • E-tests
  • Accelerated tests

18
Broth dilution test
19
Disk diffusion test
20
Side effects of chemotherapy
  • Allergic response
  • Toxic effects
  • Disbacteriosis
  • Inhibition of immune system
  • Embryotoxic action
  • Formation of the drug resistance

21
Resistance to antimicrobial drugs
  • Natural
  • Acquired (mutation and genetic recombination)

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