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Chapter One: Seeking New Lands, Seeing with New Eyes

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Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Seventh Edition by Charles Hauss Chapter 11: The Less Developed Countries – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter One: Seeking New Lands, Seeing with New Eyes


1
Comparative Politics Domestic Responses to
Global Challenges, Seventh Edition by Charles
Hauss
Chapter 11 The Less Developed Countries
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Learning Objectives
  • After studying this chapter, students should be
    able to
  • Identify primary characteristics of less
    developed countries
  • Define dependency in the context of less
    developed countries
  • Explain why the label less developed countries
    is controversial
  • Describe how less developed countries are
    affected by global influences
  • Define imperialism
  • Explain how the experience of imperialism affects
    less developed countries today
  • Describe methods used by less developed
    countries to overcome the heritage of
    imperialism
  • Explain why legitimacy is a major issue in less
    developed countries
  • Identify examples of political participation in
    less developed countries that are less common
    in other countries
  • Identify and define types of regimes in less
    developed countries
  • Identify the major international institutions
    that impact politics and economics in less
    developed countries
  • Describe how those international institutions
    impact politics and economics in less developed
    countries

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Thinking About the Third World
  • Dependent on wealthier countries for their
    well-being
  • Tremendous diversity
  • People in the West live on average 30 years
    longer and make almost 20 times more money than
    many developing countries
  • Poverty wrenching even before financial collapse
    in 2007 and 2008
  • Thomas Friedman Hot, flat, and crowded
  • Most countries have weak or failing states
  • Election of Barack Obama has had tremendous
    support throughout developing world
  • Sites of Western resources and battles

7
Thinking About the Third World
  • The Basics
  • Poverty
  • The worlds poorest states, 3/5 of the worlds
    population, ¾ including China.
  • Least effective health care
  • Lowest literacy level
  • Highest infant mortality rates
  • Lowest life expectancy
  • Lack of access to safe drinking water
  • Impact of AIDS epidemic
  • Resource-dependent economies
  • High levels of national debt

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Thinking About the Third World
  • The Basics
  • Environmental threats
  • Rapidly growing populations
  • Exploitation of environments for any possible
    material benefit
  • Slash and burn

11
Thinking About the Third World
  • The Basics
  • Ethnicity and conflict legacy borders divide
    cultural groups and force others into
    cohabitation
  • Rwanda 1994
  • Globalization
  • Developing countries being integrated into the
    global economic and cultural systems, though not
    as equals
  • Dependency theory
  • Multi-national corporations
  • Structural adjustment

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Key Questions
  • Why are global forces more influential in LDCs
    and how do they contribute to their poverty?
  • Why are Third World societies so deeply divided?
  • Why are so many of their states weak if not
    failed?
  • How can the author accurately represent the
    diversity in well over 120 countries?

14
The Evolution of Politics in the Third World
  • Imperialism and Its Legacy
  • Three waves of colonization
  • 16th and 17th centuries The Americas
  • 19th century Africa and Asia
  • After World War I Ottoman Empire
  • White mans burden
  • Subsistence economies pre-colonization
  • Commercial agriculture
  • Cash crops and natural resource exploitation,
    money went back to imperial power
  • Slavery and ruling of native peoples

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The Evolution of Politics in the Third World
  • Independence
  • Unity of nationalist movements faded
  • Lacked trained leadership and unity
  • Three waves of decolonization
  • 18th and 19th centuries in Americas
  • Early-20th century in Middle East
  • Post-World War II in Asia and Africa

17
The Evolution of Politics in the Third World
  • Postcolonial Problems
  • Appearance of military, single-party, or
    authoritarian rule
  • Civil wars and Big Power proxy conflicts
  • Little sense of national identification
  • Lack of experience of new leaders and shortage of
    resources
  • Growth of cleavages between elites and others

18
Political Culture in Less Developed Countries
  • Identity
  • Lack of national identities, people identify with
    ethnic groups
  • Patron-client relations
  • Fundamentalism
  • Political cultures that resent the West
  • Islamic Revolution of 1979
  • Rapid change can be a disruptive force and places
    growing demands on the government
  • Caste system in India
  • 9/11 attacks

19
Political Culture in Less Developed Countries
  • A Lack of Legitimacy
  • Little trust in governments and regimes
  • Demands nearly impossible to meet

20
Political Participation in Less Developed
Countries
  • Political Participation
  • Less of a balance between supportive
    participation and participation that places
    demands on the state
  • Supportive Patriotic exercises, civic actions
    (voting)
  • Coerced participation Iraq before and after Gulf
    War
  • Mass campaigns like CCP
  • Demanding
  • Patron-client relations
  • Communal groups
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

21
Weak States
  • Types of States
  • Democracies (India, Costa Rica)
  • Single-party regimes (Baathist Iraq, PRI Mexico)
  • Military regimes
  • Protect the country from external threats and
    civil unrest
  • Power often leads to corruption

22
Weak States
  • Types of States
  • Personal dictatorships (Iraq, Nicaragua)
  • Built on political and patron-client networks
  • Sometimes outgrowth of military rule
  • Impact on countries linger long after dictator is
    gone
  • Failed states Government has lost the ability to
    exercise the most basic functions (Sierre Leone,
    Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Somalia)

23
Weak States
  • States and Power
  • Few countries have been able to do more than
    maintain law and order by suppressing dissent
  • Weakness is by-product of poverty
  • Short of human resources
  • Democracy happened in West over several centuries
  • Weak institutions
  • Widespread corruption that extends far into the
    bureaucracy

24
Public Policy The Myths and Realities of
Development
  • No consensus on what development means
  • Development has benefited only tiny proportion of
    population, decision making power in foreign
    hands
  • Import substitution produce domestically what
    otherwise would be imported
  • Erecting tariff barriers
  • Countries growing more slowly than those that
    opened up their economies
  • Foreign debt

25
Public Policy The Myths and Realities of
Development
  • Structural Adjustment
  • Open economies to market forces
  • Integrate economies into the global market
  • Countries that traded the most grew the fastest
  • South Korean example

26
Public Policy The Myths and Realities of
Development
  • International Financial Institutions
  • World Bank Loans money to developing countries,
    some humanitarian efforts
  • IMF Loans based on conditionality, acceptance of
    structural adjustment
  • WTO Further free trade and resolve commercial
    disputes, supporter of structural adjustment

27
Public Policy The Myths and Realities of
Development
  • Foreign Aid
  • Need recognized since WWII
  • International agencies have become more involved
  • Colombo Plan of 1950, 0.7 goal
  • Usually tied to strategic interests of donor
    nations
  • Strings attached require purchases from donor
    nations

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Public Policy The Myths and Realities of
Development
  • Microcredit
  • Muhammad Yunis, Bangladesh Grameen Bank (Nobel
    Prize)
  • Small loans to poor people with community support
  • Model followed in 110 countries

30
Feedback
  • Lack or absence of Western-style independent
    media
  • Hand crank affordable radios
  • Michael Negroponte MIT attempts to build
    hand-crank laptop in this decade
  • Used to foment ethnic conflict

31
Conclusions Democratization a Hopeful Trend
  • Democratization an exciting trend
  • Political attitudes and behaviors of citizens
    have been key components of change
  • The state has to be reasonably effective for
    pragmatic support to build
  • Regime survival through a few election cycles
    establishes momentum for success
  • Democracy, rule of law, and capitalism all
    contribute
  • Global factors are important
  • Regimes that develop might look different from
    Western democratic ones
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