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CHINA

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Title: CHINA


1
CHINA
2
Geography
  • After the Han Dynasty collapsed, China split into
    several rival kingdoms.
  • This led to
  • nomadic people settling in Northern China.
    Because of this settlement, the culture of the
    nomads and the traditional Chinese mixed.
  • Some northern Chinese did not like the nomads and
    moved south. This led to a blending in the south
    of northern Chinese and southern Chinese
    cultures.
  • A change in culture new types of art and music,
    new foods and clothing styles.
  • This new blended culture spread over a wider
    geographic area than ever before, as a result
    more people identify themselves as Chinese.

3
Changes in Agriculture
  • Movement of farmers to the fertile basins of the
    Chang Jiang river in southern China (from NORTH
    TO SOUTH)
  • Attacks by the Mongols drove many landowners from
    the north to the south.
  • Reasons for
  • Agricultural
  • Changes

4
  • Reasons for
  • Agricultural
  • Changes cont
  • The move south changed what was grown. It was
    wetter and warmer
  • RICE
  • A new kind of rice is brought to china during the
    11th century
  • Drought resistant
  • Matured in 2 months instead of 5

5
  • Reasons for
  • Agricultural
  • Changes cont
  • New and better farming techniques and tools
    (write 2)
  • Plow and harrow
  • Fertilizer used to produce larger crops
  • Chain pump
  • Terraces
  • All of these improvements led to increased crop
    yield.

AMOUNT OF CROPS GO UP!!!!
6
  • Characteristics
  • of the New
  • Agriculture
  • Terraced hillsides
  • Rice paddies where rice is planted/harvested by
    hand
  • Irrigation dams, dikes, gated channels and
    chain pumps
  • Also grew tea, cotton and sugar.

7
CHINA DEVELOPS A NEW ECONOMY
8
  • Food production was increased!!
  • This helped to support a larger population and
    Chinas population grew to more than 100 million
    people.
  • Peasants could take time away from farming to
    make silk, cotton, cloth and other products to
    sell or trade.
  • Farmers could market surplus rice
  • Landowners could buy luxury items
  • All led to the growth of trade and commerce.
  • Results of
  • Agricultural
  • Changes

Population goes up
9
The Growth of Trade and Commerce
  • Reasons for
  • Growth in
  • Trade and
  • Commerce
  • Imports foods, plants, wool, glass, gold,
    silver
  • Exports teas, rice, spices, jade, silk,
    porcelain
  • Wealthy landowners were eager to buy luxuries
  • Water transportation
  • Rivers
  • Grand Canal
  • Improvements in navigation
  • Magnetic compass
  • Paper money (currency)

10
THE GRAND CANAL
11
  • Characteristics
  • Of Chinas
  • Commercial
  • Growth
  • Canals crowded with barges carrying goods
  • Peasants come to town to sell their surplus
  • Merchants have set up shops
  • Deposit shops where copper coins are traded
    for paper money
  • Paper money has no value itself. If there is too
    much in circulation it loses its value.

12
  • Results of
  • Growth in
  • Trade and
  • Commerce
  • Resulted in the growth of the merchant class
  • Business activity brought increased prosperity
    giving China the highest standard of living
  • Commercial centers grew into big cities -
    URBANIZATION

13
Urbanization
  • Reasons for the growth of cities
  • The growth of commerce encouraged people to move
    to cities and towns
  • Wealthy landowners left their farms because they
    liked the shops and social life of the cities.
  • Changan was Chinas capital during the Tang
    Dynasty and was a trade center.
  • It was the largest city in the world at that time.

14
  • Characteristics
  • of Cities
  • Crowded and exciting
  • Streets filled with shops, merchants,
    moneylenders, and traders
  • Entertainment
  • Musicians
  • Jugglers
  • Acrobats
  • Puppeteers
  • Theaters, restaurants, teahouses
  • Food vendors

15
  • Results of
  • Urbanization
  • Changed the way ordinary Chinese lived
  • Public works projects employed many city dwellers
  • Stimulated culture
  • Art

16
The Political Development of Imperial China
17
Imperial China
  • Historians divide Chinese history into periods
    ruled by dynasties
  • Dynasties are ruling families
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Chinese believed that Heaven supported the
    dynasty for as long as the emperor ruled well.
    Natural disasters were taken as signs that Heaven
    was displeased.

18
Qin Dynasty
  • 221-206 B.C.E.
  • Known for unification of China under an emperor
  • The Legalists strengthened state power and
    control over the people.
  • The Chinese writing system were unified.
  • Chinese defenses were strengthened by creating
    the Great Wall.

19
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20
Han Dynasty
  • 206 B.C.E. 220 C.E.
  • Known as a golden age and a united China

21
Fall of the Han Dynasty
  • Corrupt relatives of the emperor seized control
  • High taxes ruined families
  • Workers were forced to labor on public projects
  • Bandits attacked the countryside
  • The government could not protect the farmers. The
    farmers rebelled
  • The Han dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven

22
Period of Disunion
  • 220 589
  • This is the period of time following the fall of
    the Han Dynasty.
  • China was split into several rival kingdoms each
    ruled by military leaders.
  • Because of this disunion and the movement of
    people throughout China, a cultural blending took
    place.

23
Sui (Sway) Dynasty
  • 589-618 C.E.
  • Period of Disunion ends in 589
  • Yang Jian (Yang Jee-en) conquered the south and
    unified China.
  • Yang Jian later named Wen Di which means civic
    or polished emperor

24
Sui Dynasty
  • Actions
  • Started the Grand Canal which links northern and
    southern China.
  • Made improvements to the Great Wall
  • Wen Di was Buddhist, but he supported Buddhism,
    Confucianism, and Daoism in order to unite
    people.
  • Civic projects helped unite people.
  • However, Wen Di and his son were harsh and forced
    peasants who could not pay taxes to fight in the
    army or work on civic projects one project was
    to increase the size of the palace. However over
    1 million workers were needed and 40 died on the
    project!

25
The Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty 618-907 C.E. Known for economic development and growth many inventions and discoveries
26
The Tang Dynasty
  • Sui official overthrew the government and started
    the Tang Dynasty.
  • Expanded Chinas land
  • Considered the golden age of China for art and
    culture.
  • Empress Wu
  • Chinas only woman ruler her husband was sick
    and eventually died she decided her sons were
    not worthy to rule. She ruled with an iron
    fist - if people opposed her then they faced
    death
  • She chose advisors based on ability rather than
    their rank!

27
Aristocracy Relied on a large bureaucracy so big government had the power and not the locals Used civil service exams to fill some positions CHOSE ARISTOCRATS FOR MOST HIGH-LEVEL JOBS.
28
Calligraphy - Tang Dynasty Poem
Divinity Buddha from Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty Bronze Dragon
29
The Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty 960-1279 C.E. reunified China again after 50 years of civil war Known for economic development and growth many inventions and discoveries
30
Meritocracy MEANS RULE BY OFFICIAL CHOSEN FOR THEIR MERIT. The Song relied on civil service exams and opened them up to more candidates. People from LOWER CLASSES gained the ability to become scholar-officials
31
Gate Scene Song Dynasty
32
Mongol Empire Yuan Dynasty
  • 1279-1368 C.E.
  • Control of China by foreigners

33
Mongol Invasion
  • Led by Genghis Khan in 1206
  • Brutal ruler (killed men, women, children)
  • Ruled most of Asia, and then conquered northern
    China by his death in 1227

34
Kublai Khan
  • Grandson Kublai Khan takes over after 40 years of
    fighting (only non-Chinese Dynasty) PG. 187
    (Yuan Dynasty 1260-1368)
  • Completes Chinese conquest
  • Emperor in 1279
  • Seen as rude and uncivilized (different language,
    customs, gods)

35
Kublai Kahn
36
Life under Yuan
  • Khan did not force ideas on Chinese, but did
    force high taxes (public works projects completed
    by Chinese workers)
  • Social Classes were very important
  • 1st class tax-free Mongols
  • 2nd class non-Chinese civil servants
  • 3rd class Northern Chinese
  • 4th class Southern Chinese

37
Life under Yuan
  • Khan believed in traditional shamanism (good and
    evil spirits heard through priests), but allowed
    Chinese people to keep their beliefs
  • Marco Polo (Italian trader who served on Khans
    court and wrote about Khans trade)
  • Invaded Japan 1274 and 1281-weather caused
    failureremember this for Japan!
  • Mongols were weak (battles destroyed farmland and
    people) and Chinese rebelled and regained control
    in 1300s

38
Society and Culture
  • Society and culture varied by dynasty
  • Men were in power except for Empress Wu
  • There was a focus on agriculture and trade
  • Social conventions foot binding

39
Foot Binding
  • Began late in the Tang Dynasty and continued for
    the next thousand years.
  • An attempt to stop the growth of the feet.
  • Began somewhere between the ages of four and
    seven.
  • "If you love your daughter, bind her feet if you
    love your son, let him study," or so goes the old
    Chinese saying.

40
Foot Binding
41
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42
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43
Arts and Inventions
  • Most advancements under the Tang and Song
    dynasties
  • Art
  • Painted murals that celebrated Buddhism and
    nature
  • Poems
  • Made clay sculptures
  • Made porcelain items
  • covered in a pale green
  • glaze - celadon

44
Arts and Inventions
  • Some of the most important in human history under
    the Tang and Song.
  • Paper
  • Porcelain
  • Woodblock printing
  • Gunpowder
  • Movable type
  • Magnetic compass
  • Paper money
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