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Plant Structure and Function

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Plant Tissue Systems Meristematic Tissue: This is growth tissue where cell division and enlargement occur and is found near the tips of roots and stem buds. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Structure and Function


1
Plant Structure and Function
2
Whats the Difference?
3
What In This Unit
  • What makes plant cells work?
  • Whats the difference between plant and animal
    cells
  • Whats inside of plants cells
  • The breakdown of Stems, Roots, Leaves and Flowers

4
  • For cells in a plant to multiply or enlarge a
    plant must have the following
  • Carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, nitrogen,
    phosphorus, potassium and trace elements.

5
Plants Animals
  • There are basically two differences between
    plants and animals.
  • Plant have the ability to make their own food.

6
  • The second difference is in their respiration.
  • Plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.

7
  • Plant Cells

8
  • Plant cells consist of the following
  • Cell Wall non-continuous structure surrounding
    the plasma membrane

9
  • Vacuole cavity in the cytoplasm filled with cell
    water
  • Cytoplasm total protoplasm in the cell except
    the cell nucleus
  • Mitochondrion breaks down compounds for the cell

10
  • Nucleus a small round body that contains the
    nucleolus and chromosomes.

11
Plant Tissue Systems
  • Meristematic Tissue This is growth tissue where
    cell division and enlargement occur and is found
    near the tips of roots and stem buds.

12
Simple Tissues
  • Epidermal tissue This tissue is one-cell thick
    and forms the outer layer of flowers, leaves, and
    many types of fruits.

13
  • Parenchyma tissue This tissue comprises the
    fleshy part of fruits, roots, and tubers.
  • Its ,main function is to store food and water.

14
Complex Tissue
  • Xylem tissue This tissue is called wood in
    vascular plants.
  • Its principal functions are to conduct water and
    support the plant

15
  • Phloem tissue This tissue also conducts material
    in the plant and gives the plant support.
  • Its main function is to transfer food from the
    leaves to other parts of the plant

16
  • Parts of The
    Plant

17
The Plant Roots
  • The function of the plants roots are to absorb
    nutrients and water from the soil and to anchor
    the plant.
  • The root system can makeup 50 of a plants weight.

18
  • There are two types of root systems soilless
    roots which include aerial (ivy), and
    aquatic(water lily).
  • Soilborne roots are classified into tap and
    fibrous roots.

19
  • Tap roots are those roots which have a long main
    root such as a carrot or pine tree.
  • Fibrous roots spread out such as grass

20
Parts of the Root
  • At the tip is the roots cap, where cell division
    occurs and it pushes down into the soil.
  • Root hairs are used to help take in nutrients

21
The Plant Stem
  • The major function of the stem is to join the
    root and leaf systems.
  • Some photosynthesis also takes place in the stem.

22
Parts of the Stem
  • Node- jointed part of the stem on which leaf or
    flower buds develop
  • Internode- major part of the stem between the
    nodes.

23
  • Axillary Bud- bud found at the leaf axil from
    which flowers and branches arise.
  • Terminal Bud- tip or end of the shoot were growth
    takes place.

24
  • Petiole- is a stem-like leaf structure that
    attaches the leaf to the stem

25
Woody Stems
  • Outerbark- protects the interior of the plant
    from insects and diseases and excessive heat and
    cold.
  • Innerbark- carries food manufactured in leaves to
    the branches, trunk, and roots

26
  • Cambium- layer of cells between the bark and wood
    where growth is diameter occur and the formation
    of annual rings.

27
  • Sapwood(xylem)- carries sap from the roots to the
    leaves
  • Heartwood- is inactive sapwood which is darker in
    color and gives strength to the plant

28
  • Pith- is the dark center in the heartwood core.

29
Leaves
  • Leaves are the food factory of the plant
    producing all food that is used by the plant and
    stored for later use by the plant or by an
    animal.
  • Leaves vary in shape and size with most of them
    being flat
  • The arrangement of the leaves differ alternate,
    opposite, whorled,

30
External Leaf Structures
  • The petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf
    to the stem
  • The blade which is the flat part of the leaf
  • The midrib which is the large center vein from
    which all veins extend
  • The margins which are the edges of the leaf

31
Internal Leaf Structures
  • The skin of the leaf is called the epidermis
    which is a single layer of cells. The epidermis
    provides protection from water loss.
  • The guard cells open and close a small space or
    pore on the underside of the leaf called the
    stoma
  • The stoma allows the plant to transpire. This
    gives off moisture and exchange of gases.

32
  • In the inner part of the leaf are the
    chloroplast. The chloroplast are filled with
    chlorophyll which give the leaf its green color.
  • With the use of chlorophyll , minerals, sugars
    sunlight and carbon dioxide the plant goes
    through photosynthesis

33
  • The formula for photosynthesis is the following
  • 6CO2 6 H2O 672 Kcals (light energy) C6H12O6
    (Glucose) O2

34
Flower
  • The purpose of the flower is the reproduction of
    the plant. This can be done through fruits and
    seed.
  • The reason flowers are colorful is to attract
    insects for pollination

35
Parts of the Flower
  • The sepals are the green leaflike part of the
    flower located at the base and are used to
    protect the flower bud.
  • The petals are actually leaves and are the most
    striking part of the flower
  • The stamen makes up the male reproductive part of
    the plant. This includes the anther which holds
    the pollen. The filament is the slender stalk
    that holds the anther

36
  • The pistil is the female reproductive part of the
    flower. This includes the stigma which is sticky
    and catches the pollen, the style which is a long
    tube that carries to the ovary, the ovary is
    where the egg is produced.

37
  • A complete flower has both male and female parts
  • An incomplete flower contains only one of the
    parts
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