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Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities

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Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities Ch 7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities


1
Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities
  • Ch 7

2
(No Transcript)
3
Chapter Overview
  1. Introductory Quiz
  2. Cognitive Abilities
  3. Sources of the Differences?
  4. Implications
  5. Considering Diversity
  6. The Game
  7. The Point of the Game
  8. On the Web

4
I. Introductory Quiz
5
False
  • 1. A good definition of intelligence is How
    smart someone is.

6
True
  • 2. The universal belief is that women are not as
    smart as men.

7
True
  • 3. Generally speaking, men are better in math
    that women.

8
False
  • 4. Men get lost more often than women.

9
False
  • 5. Women tend to be more creative than men.

10
True
  • 6. Womens emotions are more transparent than
    mens.

11
True
  • 7. Women smile more often than men.

12
False
  • 8. Women are better at reading non-verbal cues
    such as motives, feelings, and wishes than men.

13
True
  • 9. When it comes to cognitive abilities, the
    variation from person to person is greater than
    the variation between men and womens cognitive
    abilities.

14
False
  • 10. If a person scores higher on a test of
    verbal abilities, the test taker is probably a
    woman.

15
  • Bonus Which students show the highest average
    levels of spatial abilities of any group of
    college majors?

16
  • COGNITIVE ABILITIES
  • No gender differences found in original tests.
  • Results of The Wechsler Test

17
  • Verbal Performance a variety of tasks that
    require a verbal response
  • Women girls score higher on the verbal, too
    small to be of practical value.
  • Girls and womens advantages are large in
    writing performance

18
  • Mathematical and Quantitative Performance
  • Men score higher on performance tasks.
  • No gender differences during elementary school.
  • During junior high school, the definition of
    mathematical ability changes boys begin to
    outperform girls on some standardized math tests.
  • Tests like the SAT under-predict women's and
    over-predict men's math performance in college gt
    tests are biased.

19
(No Transcript)
20
  • Attitudes toward math differ more than
    performance does.
  • Girls feel math is less important to their
    futures
  • girls feel less confident about their math
    abilities
  • girls get less encouragement from parents
    teachers in math.
  • Boys and girls see math as a male domain.

21
  • Spatial Performance
  • Boys and men have a small advantage when trying
    to locate horizontal or vertical lines in the
    presence of distracting information

22
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
23
  1. Boys and men have a much greater ability to
    visualize objects as they would appear if rotated
    in space (mental rotation)

24
a,b
25
  1. No consistent gender differences in the ability
    to process spatial information to understand the
    relationship between objects in space, such as
    the ability to see a figure embedded in other
    figures (spatial visualization)
  2. Limited research gt men do better than women
    involving judgments about moving objects in space
    (Spatiotemporal ability)

26
  • Research indicates that experience is a factor in
    all of these types of spatial performance

27
Another stupid, sexist joke
  • Do you know what would have happened if it had
    been Three Wise Women instead of Three Wise Men?
  • They would have asked directions, arrived on
    time, helped deliver the baby, cleaned the
    stable, made a casserole and brought practical
    gifts.

28
  • Does anyone agree with that?

29
  • Other Mental Abilities
  • i.e., memory, creativity, musical ability, and
    nonverbal communication
  • Women and men use different strategies to find
    their way. Men are more successful in navigating
    in laboratory situations, but both are equally
    successful when navigating in the world.
  • Differences gtrole expectation not mental
    abilities.
  • Ex gender differences in communication style,
    especially interpreting nonverbal cues, may be
    more related to status and power than to gender.

30
III. Sources of the Difference
  • Structural or functional differences in the
    brain?

31
  • Biological Evidence for Gender Differences
  • Possible causes
  • prenatal hormones
  • selection differences during evolutionary history
  • functional differences in the brain during the
    performance of various types of tasks.

32
  • Strong appeal but weak evidence
  • Prenatal hormones creates only small differences
    in performance
  • empirical confirmation for evolutions influence
    not possible.
  • research on functional imaging of living brains
    has shown some gender differences in patterns of
    activation but more individual than gender
    variation.

33
  • Sources of the Difference
  • Socialization and gender expectation?

34
  • Cultural and social role differences
  • Factors such as familiarity and instructions
    influence performance on spatial tasks.
  • Stereotype threat
  • Many situations assessing verbal, quantitative,
    and spatial performance fall into this category.

35
IV. Implications
  1. They seem larger than they are.
  2. Gender differences in cognitive abilities should
    produce some differences in occupations but not
    to the magnitude that exists now.
  3. Janet Hyde has argued that the publicity given to
    gender differences in mental abilities has led to
    the acceptance of these differences as

36
V. Considering Diversity
  1. Most research showing gender differences comes
    from White students in the United States

37
  • Other groups show different patterns of
    difference.
  • Ex Hispanic and African American students in
    the United States do not show the male advantage
    for quantitative and spatial performance.

38
  1. Richard Nisbett proposed that people in Eastern
    and Western cultures think differently, which
    leads to differences in perception and memory.

39
  • Considering cultural differences, Nisbett sees
    few gender-related differences that are as large.

40
VI. Game
41
VII. The Point of the Game
  • Individual differenced overwhelm gender
    differences.
  • Well established difference does not mean
    large difference.
  • Peoples beliefs allow small distinctions in
    cognitive abilities to have a large impact.
  • Verbal, quantitative, and spatial differences
    between the sexes are between 1 and 5--too small
    to explain or predict individual performances.

42
Answer Fashion Designers
  • Bonus Which students show the highest average
    levels of spatial abilities of any group of
    college majors?

43
Dramatic Reading
44
VIII. On the Web
  • A. Want to take an IQ test? Online versions of
    several IQ-type tests are available on
    QueenDom.com (http//www.queendom.com/tests/index.
    html). In addition to traditional IQ-type tests,
    this webpage offers assessments of verbal and
    spatial abilities. Information about intelligence
    and assessments in other areas are also
    available.

45
  • B. If you are interested in girls who are video
    game enthusiasts, go to the GrrlGamer webpage
    (www.grrlgamer.com), which features reviews and
    sarcastic essays about the status of female
    characters and women in the video game industry.
    Women Gamers has a website (www.womengamers.com),
    which also offers reviews and a forum for women
    who are involved in video games.
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