Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Memory PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 750b58-MzQ3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Memory

Description:

Memory Taking in and Storing Information – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:18
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: blund
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Memory


1
Memory
  • Taking in and Storing Information

2
What do we remember?
  • Write down the very first memory you can think
    of! How old were you?
  • Neural pathways are still developing
  • Language barrier
  • Survival responses may take precedence

3
Flashbulb Memories
  • Surprise-induced memorization
  • Empirical research shows that flashbulb memories
    may be formed in response to surprising stimuli
    and events in general.
  • Hormonal basis hypothesis
  • Cortisol is released in response to stressful
    incidents causing the brain to remember things to
    avoid in the future.
  • Reinforcement Theories

4
Informational Processing Model Encoding, Storage
Retrieval
  • Sensory Memory very brief memory storage
    immediately following initial reception of a
    stimulus.
  • Our senses hold onto memories for fractions of a
    second.
  • Iconic Memory visual sensory memory
  • Echoic Memory auditory sensory memory that lasts
    for 1-2 seconds

5
Sensory Memory Iconic
  • George Sperling Present stimulus for 50ms to
    participants
  • P Y F G
  • V J S A
  • D H B U
  • In one condition he asked for whole (recall was
    4)
  • In another condition, he told them which row of
    letters (after they viewed the letters first,
    second or third, he would like participants to
    try to recall. (recall 3-4 letters)
  • This meant that for a brief period of time the
    grid was available to the participants as sensory
    memory.
  • This suggest we see more than we can say

6
Write down what you read.
7
What did you write down?
  • A BIRD IN THE BUSH
  • A BIRD IN THE THE BUSH

8
The Processes of MemoryEncoding
  • First we encode information.
  • Encoding the transforming of information so the
    nervous system can process it.
  • We encode information through our senses.
  • Acoustic Codes listening, saying something out
    loud
  • Visual Codes mental pictures, images
  • Semantic Codes give meaning to the information

9
Write down the number of Fs Appearing in the
Statement Below.
  • Finished files are
  • the results of years
  • of scientific study
  • combined with the
  • experience of years.

10
How many did you count? 3, 4, 5, 6 ? (acoustic
or visual encoding?)
  • Finished files are
  • the results of years
  • of scientific study
  • combined with the
  • experience of years.

11
Instructions will appear on the next slide.
  • Nod your head when you fully understand the
    instructions.

12
Group 1
  • FOR EACH OF THE WORDS THAT I AM GOING TO READ,
    MENTALLY RATE THE USEFULNESS OF THE ITEM, ON A
    1-5 SCALE, IF YOU WERE STRANDED ON A DESERT
    ISLAND.

13
Instructions will appear on the next slide.
  • Nod your head when you fully understand the
    instructions.

14
GROUP 2
  • FOR EACH OF THE WORDS THAT I AM GOING TO READ,
    MENTALLY ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF SYLLABALS FOUND
    IN THE WORD.

15
The Processes of Memory
  • Storage
  • Storage The process by which information is
    maintained over a period of time.
  • How much effort was put into encoding?

16
Three Stages of Memory Short-Term
  • Short-Term Memory memory that is limited in
    capacity to about seven items and in duration by
    the subjects active rehearsal.
  • Information needs to be repeated to keep in short
    term memory.

17
Short-Term Memory
  • Maintenance rehearsal shallow processing
  • 20 seconds
  • Rule of 7 (7 /- 2)
  • Try to remember as many of the following letters
    as possible.

FABCPBSNBCCNNMTV F ABC PBS NBC CNN MTV Chunking
the process of grouping items to make them easier
to remember. Social Security Numbers Phone
Numbers
18
Lets Test Your Short Term Memory!
  • 925
  • 8642
  • 37654
  • 627418
  • 0401473
  • 19223530
  • 486854332
  • 7290035673
  • 61531797264

19
Put Your Pens/Pencils Down and Listen to the List
of Words I Read.
  • 5 10 15 20
  • Dream
  • Night
  • Toss
  • Turn
  • Sound
  • Rest
  • Snore
  • Awake
  • Night
  • Slumber
  • Eat
  • Artichoke
  • Comfort
  • Wake
  • Tired
  • Clock
  • Fatigue
  • Silence

20
Short-Term Memory
  • The Serial Position Effect we are better able to
    recall information presented at the beginning and
    end of a list.
  • Primacy Effect
  • Recency Effect

21
Informational Processing Model Encoding, Storage
Retrieval
22
Try to remember everything you see and hear.
23
The Processes of Memory
  • Retrieval
  • Retrieval The process of obtaining information
    that has been stored in memory.
  • Information is brought back to mind from storage.
  • Depends on how information was encoded and stored.

24
Deliberate Explicit Conscious Recall
No conscious recall C.C. habits
Memory of events in serial form
25
Long-Term Memory Semantic Memory
  • Semantic Memory knowledge of language, including
    its rules, words, and meanings.

26
Long-Term Memory Episodic Memory
  • Episodic Memory memory of ones life, including
    time of occurrence.

27
Long-Term Memory Procedural Memory
  • Procedural Memory memory of learned skills that
    does not require conscious recollection.
  • Skills
  • Habits
  • Classical Conditioning

28
Long-Term Memory Declarative Memory
  • Declarative Memory memory of knowledge that can
    be called forth consciously as needed.
  • Explicit Memory
  • deliberate effortful
  • Implicit Memory
  • automatic

29
Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
30
Three Stages of Memory Long-Term Memory
  • Long-Term Memory information is stored for long
    periods of time.
About PowerShow.com