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Medications, Effects, & the Importance of Observation CMT Training #1 The Center for Life Enrichment Resource: MTTP Student Manual – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medications,%20Effects,%20

Medications, Effects, the Importance of
  • CMT Training 1
  • The Center for Life Enrichment
  • Resource MTTP Student Manual

4 Reasons to Use Medications
  1. To cure an illness/disease
  2. To prevent an illness/disease
  3. To reduce/relieve symptoms related to an
  4. To manage an illness/disease

Staff Responsibilities in Administering
  • As a CMT, you will be responsible for ensuring
    that individuals take their medications safely
  • Administering medications safely requires
    following the Medication Administration
  • Observing the individual for changes in physical
    condition and/or changes in behavior
  • Reporting these observations to the RN CM/DN and
    supervisor in an appropriate time frame
  • Assisting the individual in a visit to the HCP
    and communicating and obtaining all necessary
    information (May apply to CMTs providing ISS/CSLA
  • Communicating with the pharmacist and obtaining
    the prescribed medication (i.e. new
    orders/refills) (May apply to CMTs providing
    ISS/CSLA support)
  • Storing the medication safely
  • Administering medications correctly
  • Ensuring medications are taken
  • Recording information promptly, correctly and on
    correct forms

Identifying Effects of Medication
  • As a CMT, you spend more time with the
    individuals in your care than anyone else.
    Because of this, you are the most important
    advocate responsible for communicating the
    preferences and needs of those individuals
  • You are the best person to notice when changes
    occur in the individuals physical condition or
    in their usual ways of behaving
  • Some changes may be sudden and drastic, while
    others are more subtle

Identifying Effects of Medication Continued
  • When medication therapy is used, there are three
    (3) main effects of medication
  • Desired effect the medication is doing what it
    is meant to do. It is your responsibility to
    observe for and record the desired effect of
    medication therapy
  • Unwanted/side effects even though the medication
    may be working (desired effect), it may produce
    unintended symptoms. Unwanted/side effects can
    range from being harmless to being potentially
    fatal. It is your responsibility to always
    observe for, report and document any
    unwanted/side effects an individual experiences
    related to medication therapy
  • No apparent effect a medication is not producing
    the desired effect with no observable benefits or
    side effects. When a medication is noted to have
    no apparent effect, the RN CM/DN and prescribing
    HCP must be informed. The dose or medication may
    need to be adjusted by the HCP

Factors Affecting the Individuals Response to
  • Age children and aging individuals require
    smaller doses of medication and react differently
    to certain drugs
  • Weight body weight may delay or speed up
  • Gender hormone levels may affect the bodys
    utilization of specific medications
  • General Physical Condition the presence of a
    chronic or acute illness may also alter the
    bodys response to medication

Objective Signs
  • Objective signs are observable/measurable
    information that you can document about another
  • The changes you see in an individuals
    appearance, behavior, and bodily functions are
    objective signs
  • They can be seen, heard, felt, smelled, or
  • For example, you may
  • See or hear a person crying or moaning
  • Feel an individuals skin as warm or cold
  • See that the individual has vomited
  • See that an individual has a change in bowel
  • Hear an individual slurring his speech
  • Measure an individuals temperature or weight
  • See that an individuals eating habits have

Subjective Symptoms
  • The changes that you cannot see, but that are
    experienced and/or reported by the individual are
    subjective symptoms
  • An individual may verbally tell you of changes
    he/she perceives or may use nonverbal behavior to
    express these changes
  • For example, the individual may complain of
  • Pain
  • Itching
  • Dizziness
  • Feeling upset or worried
  • Weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea

Objective Signs Subjective Symptoms
  • When an individual reports a symptom to you, you
    should not only report the symptom but also look
    for other signs.
  • For example, if an individual reports that he is
    dizzy (symptom), a sign would be if he held onto
    furniture to help steady himself
  • There are times when you might have to observe an
    individuals nonverbal behavior and report these
    behaviors to assist in detecting symptoms
  • For example, what might these signs indicate?
  • Holding ones head
  • Pointing toward part of the body
  • Limping
  • Restlessness
  • Pacing

Changes in Physical Condition
  • To observe correctly you must notice any and all
    changes that occur in the individuals physical
  • To accurately detect changes, you must be
    familiar with the individuals daily patterns,
    baseline behaviors, and health status
  • To detect changes, be alert to
  • A change in body weight
  • Urinary patterns change (e.g. frequency or
  • Constipation, diarrhea, or other change in bowel
  • Loss of appetite
  • Change in walking/gait or balance
  • Change in ability to perform activities of daily
    living (ADLs) e.g. put on coat, wash hands, etc.
  • Change in eating pattern
  • Change in cognition (process of knowing/thinking)
    and/or memory
  • Change in temperature, pulse, respiratory
    (breathing) rate, and/or blood pressure

Changes in Behavior
  • In identifying changes in an individuals
    behavior, it is necessary to first learn what is
    usual or baseline for that individual
  • Compare his or her present behaviors to the usual
    behaviors that the individual has shown in the
  • For individuals with dementia or behavioral
    problems, it becomes especially important to know
    what their usual behavior pattern was like
    before receiving any medications to target
  • Behavioral changes may present as
  • Emotional changes (e.g. mood, withdrawn, anger,
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Change in level of activity
  • Changes in ability to communicate
  • Changes in socialization with others
  • Change in level of consciousness (e.g. lethargy,
    hyperactivity, drowsiness, etc.)
  • Increased irritability
  • Increased pacing
  • Increased or decreased resistance to care
  • Change in level of cooperativeness
  • Mental changes (e.g. memory, ability to
    concentrate, etc.)

Your Role is Very Important!
  • While only the HCP can order medication, your
    reported observations and descriptions of
    physical and behavioral changes contribute to the
    information that the HCP uses in planning
  • Because you are the person in closest contact
    with the individual experiencing physical and
    behavioral changes, it is your responsibility to
    observe, describe and report signs and symptoms
    to the RN CM/DN right away!

Contact Info
  • Pat Breitmaier, RN CM/DN, TCLE
  • 301-373-8100 821 (office)
  • 301-904-0676 (cell)
  • 301-884-3283 (home)
  • Ann Kline, Quality Assurance Director, TCLE
  • 301-373-8100 830 (office)
  • Know your immediate supervisors contact info!
  • Have access to emergency contact numbers for the
    individuals in your care!

Be Well Informed!
  • It is important that you read the Individual Plan
    (IP) and health record of each individual in your
  • Pay close attention to the recommendations from
    all health care professionals, including the RN
  • You are responsible for reviewing and
    implementing the individuals Nursing Care Plan
  • You are responsible for asking questions if you
    dont understand

Any Questions?