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World War Two

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World War Two The Start of the Cold War *Victory in Europe Allies crossed the Rhine toward Berlin Russians came from the east In late April east and west met at the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War Two


1
World War Two
  • The Start of the Cold War

2
Aggression, Appeasement, War
During the 1930's Dictators took aggressive acts
and got verbal protests
  • Japan wanted a big empire
  • Invaded Manchuria in 1931
  • League of Nations condemned
  • By 1937 overran most of Eastern China
  • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1936
  • League of Nations condemned and
    voted sanctions
  • Germany
  • Hitler violated the Versailles treaty
  • Built up army
  • Sent troops into the Rhineland
  • Increased his popularity at home

3
Policy of Appeasement
  • Why did western government give in to aggressors
    in order to maintain the peace
  • Saw Hitler as a buffer against Soviet Communism
  • Great Depression sapped their strengths
  • Pacifism...abhor war and sought peace at any
    price
  • U. S. Neutrality Acts were designed to avoid
    involvement
  • No arms sales
  • No loans
  • No travel on warring ships

4
Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis
  • September 27, 1940
  • Joined to fight communism
  • Would not interfere with each other Imperialism

5
Axis Powers Rise
6
Spanish Civil War a dress rehearsal
  • Nationalists (republic) versus Loyalists
    (leftists)
  • Germany supported the republic against the
    communists
  • Soviets supported the leftists
  • Killed over one million
  • Germany perfected its air power

The famous Picasso painting of the German bombing
of Spanish civilians at Guernica would foreshadow
the horrors awaiting a Europe that had turned
it's back on Spain.
7
German aggression continues
  • Austria annexed 1938
  • Sudetenland annexed 1938
  • Munich Conference
  • Hitler agreed to no more expansion
  • Neville Chamberlain Peace for our time
  • Churchill, They had to choose between war and
    dishonor. They chose dishonor they will have
    war.

8
They will have war
  • March 1939, Hitler takes the rest of
    Czechoslovakia
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact... Aug 1939... they agreed
  • Not to fight if the other went to war
  • To divide up Poland and other parts of Europe

Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov signs the
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact while German
Foreign Minister Von Ribbentrop and Soviet leader
Stalin look on under a portrait of Lenin
9
Why did war come?
  • Versailles Treaty
  • Depression distracted westerners
  • Misread Hitlers intentions
  • Aware of the destructive power of modern warfare

Germanys and the United States industrial
output fell by about 50 per cent, and between 25
and 33 per cent of the industrial labour force
was unemployed. When the American economy fell
into depression, US banks recalled their loans,
causing the German banking system to collapse.
10
The First Onslaught
  • Sept. 1939 Hitler unleashed the Blitzkrieg(
    lightning war) on western Poland
  • Planes bombed airfields, factories, towns, and
    cities.
  • The fast moving armor supported troops.
  • Stalin invaded the eastern side
  • April 1940...Hitler attacked Norway, Denmark,
    Netherlands, and Belgium

11
The Miracle of Dunkirk
  • May 29-31, 1940
  • Destroyers, Cargo Boats, Fishing Boats, Cross
    Channel Ferries, Yachts, Motor Boats, Fire
    Floats, Tugs, Tugs towing boats, Lifeboats,
    Pleasure Steamers and Holiday Boats
  • 212,000 British 113,000 allied troops 13,000
    wounded.

Churchills Response
"We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the
seas and oceans, we shall fight them in the air,
we shall fight them on the beaches, we shall
fight them on the landing grounds, we shall fight
in the fields and streets, we shall fight them in
the hills. we will never surrender"
12
France surrendered to Germany on June 22, 1940
  • Hitler forced signing in the same railroad car
    used for WWI armistice
  • Hitler occupied the northern part
  • Set up puppet government (Vichy) in the south
  • Charles de Gaulle, set up a government in exile
    in England
  • Resistance fighters harassed Germans

13
Battle of Britain Operation Sea Lion
  • Aug. 12, 1940 Nazi bombing of military targets
    begins
  • Sept. 7th bombing of London and other cities
    begins
  • 57 days of bombing destroyed most of London
  • 15,000 mostly civilians killed
  • June 1941, Hitler canceled Sea Lion and turned to
    Russia

Spitfire
Messerschmitt 109
14
War in Great Britain
15
Operation Barbarossa The Conquest of Russia
June 1941
  • Why?
  • Wanted living space
  • Wanted control of the natural resources
  • Wanted to crush Communism
  • Sent a 3 million man Blitzkrieg into Russia
  • Stalin unprepared
  • Purges lost many top officers
  • Lost 2.5 million troops
  • Destroyed factories, equipment and crops
    (scorched earth)

16
Moscow and Leningrad
  • Moscow
  • Winter stalled the Germans (-20 degrees)
  • Leningrad
  • 2 ½ year siege began
  • Over one million died in the city
  • Ate wallpaper paste and boiled leather

17
American Involvement
  • Through Nov. 1941 America still declared a
    neutral
  • FDR found ways around the Neutrality Laws
  • Lend Lease Act early 1941
  • Sell or lend war materials to any country whos
    defense the President deems vital to the defense
    of the U.S.
  • Atlantic Charter Aug. 1941 FDR and Churchill
  • Final destruction the Nazi tyranny
  • Support self determination
  • Permanent system of general security

18
U.S Joins War
19
Japan Attacks Dec. 7, 1941
  • Why?
  • U.S. banned selling war materials ... iron, steel
    and oil
  • U.S. interfering with their plans
  • The attack
  • Damaged or destroyed 19 ships
  • Smashed most of the airplanes
  • Killed 2,400 people
  • A day that will live in infamy

20
Day in Infamy
21
Axis powers had reached their high point by
spring 1942
  • They had made two serious mistakes
  • Germans had attacked Russia opening a two front
    war
  • Japanese had brought the United States into the
    war

22
Occupied Lands
  • A resource to be plundered and looted
  • Nazis systematically stripped countries of art,
    factories and other resources
  • Treated conquered people with brutality, killing
    and torture
  • Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • Japans self proclaimed mission was to help other
    Asians escape western imperialistic colonial rule
  • Treated conquered people with brutality, killing
    and torture

23
Campaign Against the Jews
Night of Broken Glass"
  • Nuremberg Laws prohibited
  • marriage to non Jews
  • Teaching in German schools
  • Holding Government jobs
  • Practicing law or medicine
  • Publishing books
  • Were not considered citizens of the Reich
  • Hitler used the Jews as scapegoats

In two days, over 1,000 synagogues were burned,
7,000 Jewish businesses were trashed and looted,
dozens of Jewish people were killed, and Jewish
cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes were
looted
24
Nazi Genocide
  • Hitlers plan to kill racially inferior people
  • Jews, Gypsies and the mentally ill
  • Death camps
  • Upon arrival they were stripped and separated
  • Young, old and sick were marked for immediate
    killing
  • Taken to the showers and gassed
  • The others were worked to death or used in
    medical experiments
  • Some helped by hiding marked persons
  • Collaborators helped hunt down marked persons

25
A glimpse of the horrors of the Holocaust
The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of
six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World
War 2. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews
lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be
occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two
out of every three European Jews had been killed
26
Yalta Conference
  • Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to finish
    the Nazis first then Japan
  • Distrusted each other
  • Churchill felt Stalin wanted to dominate Europe
  • Roosevelt felt Churchill wanted to increase
    British imperial power
  • Stalin felt the others wanted to destroy Communism

27
Total war directed all effort to winning the war
  • Factories turned out airplanes and tanks
  • Rationed consumer goods
  • Regulated prices and wages
  • Brought the depression to and end
  • Limited citizens rights
  • Censored the press
  • Propaganda to increase public support
  • Japanese U.S. citizens lost their civil rights

28
(No Transcript)
29
Women in the war effort
  • Built ships and planes, produced munitions and
    staffed offices
  • Served in the armed forces
  • driving trucks delivering airplanes, decoding
    messages, worked anti-aircraft guns, fought in
    the resistance

30
Invasion of Italy....July 1943
  • Took Sicily and southern Italy in about a month
  • Italians over threw Mussolini
  • Germans come to save him opening up a third front

31
Invasion of France
  • Early 1944 bombers flew constant missions over
    Germany
  • D-Day .... June 6, 1944
  • 176,000 troops invade the beaches of Normandy
  • Aug. 25th Paris liberated

32
Battle of the Bulge Dec. 1944
  • All or nothing German offensive
  • Blitzkrieg through Belgium
  • Allied lines bulged but did not break

33
Germany was being pounded from the air
  • Industrial city of Hamburg erased
  • Dresden destroyed in Feb. 1945 killed 135,000

34
Victory in Europe
  • Allies crossed the Rhine toward Berlin
  • Russians came from the east
  • In late April east and west met at the Elbe River
  • Hitler commits suicide

35
May 7, 1945 VE Day
36
War in the Pacific
  • Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway May and
    June 1942
  • Severely weakened the Japanese Navy
  • Showed the value of the carrier
  • Put Japan on the defensive

Where is Coral Sea?
37
War in the Pacific
  • Island hopping strategy
  • Guadalcanal..first step
  • Take one then hop over the next
  • By 1944 U.S. bombers were hitting Mainland Japan
  • Oct. 1944 MacArthur was retaking the Philippines
  • British were pushing Japs back in Malaya

38
Japan Blown Away
  • The Bomb
  • Developed in Alamogordo NM. Using some Nazi
    scientists
  • July 1945 first test
  • Truman issued Japan a warning to surrender by the
    first part of Aug. or face utter and complete
    destruction.

39
Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945
  • Flattened 4 sq. miles....killed 70,000 plus many
    1,000's more from radiation sickness
  • Truman warned them again or expect, a rain of
    ruin from the air the likes of which has never
    been seen before
  • Soviet Union declared war on Japan Aug. 8th

40
Nagasaki Aug 9, 1945
  • Fatman bomb, dropped by the U.S. B-29 Bock's
    Car, explodes with the force of 22 kilotons of
    explosive
  • Killed 40,000
  • Emperor Hirohito surrendered Aug 10th

41
Effects of Atomic Bomb
42
Formal Peace Treaty Sept. 2, 1945
  • Why drop the Atomic Bomb?
  • Japan would not surrender
  • Invasion would cost enormous loss of life
  • Impress Soviets of American power

43
The Aftermath of War
  • 75,000,000 killed world wide
  • The horrors of the Holocaust came to light
  • German political and military leaders tried in
    the War Crimes Trials
  • Proved that leaders could be held accountable for
    their actions during a war.
  • Germany divided up by the Allies
  • Japan occupied by the U.S.

44
United Nations....April 1945
  • 50 nations met in San Francisco to form the
    United Nations
  • General Assembly....each member got one vote
  • Security Council...five permanent members plus
    two rotating from Gen. Assembly
  • United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France and
    China
  • Anyone could veto any council decision

"Nothing is more essential to the future peace of
the world than continued cooperation of the
nations which had to muster the force necessary
to defeat the conspiracy of the Axis powers to
dominate the world.
45
Iron Curtain
  • Conflicting Ideologies lead to mutual distrust
    among allies
  • Stalin occupied countries he liberated from the
    Germans
  • Installed pro-Soviet governments in eastern
    Europe
  • Stalin wanted
  • To spread Communism
  • Create a buffer zone
  • Dropped an Iron Curtain across the continent

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent.
46
War Ends
47
Containment limit Communism to the areas already
under Soviet control
  • Truman doctrine
  • Resist Soviet expansion in Europe or elsewhere in
    the world
  • The Marshall Plan
  • Massive aid program to Europe
  • Food and economic assistance
  • Help rebuild Europe
  • Resist communist influence

48
Berlin Airlift
  • June 1948 Stalin closed off Berlin
  • Allies airlifted food and other necessities for
    almost a year

49
Military Alliances
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949
  • Warsaw Pact..1955
  • Arms race...for 40 years both sides developed
    deadly nuclear weapons and delivery systems
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