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The Science of Teaching


The Science of Teaching Researched Based Instructional Strategies (Teaching requires heart and is both an art and a science) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Science of Teaching

The Science of Teaching
  • Researched Based Instructional Strategies
    (Teaching requires heart and is both an art
  • and a science)

(No Transcript)
Science .
  • is a set of process skills to solve problems
  • is life-long learning
  • Begins with questions and creates more questions
  • depends upon working collaboratively
  • is the use of documented research
  • is persistence to tasks
  • allows for trial and error learning
  • is active student engagement

The average student talks 35 seconds a day. The
student who is talking is growing dendrites.
A Sobering Reality
  • The children of the twenty-first century are
    and will endure a society characterized by
    drastic change. As educators we can provide
    students with the processes that prepare children
    for the challenges of living in a fast-changing
    society. Their lives, more than ours, will be
    affected by domestic and international politics,
    economic flux, technological developments,
    demographic shifts, and the stress of social
    change. The only prediction that can be made with
    certainty is that the world of the future will be
    characterized by greater change.

What do all of the following problems have in
  • Cancer
  • High dropout rate
  • Drug addiction
  • Violence among youth
  • War
  • Infant mortality
  • Joblessness
  • Mineral depletion
  • Energy crisis

You will touch the lives of people thathold the
cure for cancer, poverty, hunger.You will touch
the lives of future Nobel Prize
Winners,teachers, innovators, leaders.Your
mission is to motivate them and provide them
withthat initial spark that will set the wheels
in motion.Your job is not to simply teach
information, provide a service, or manage
behaviors.Your job is to inspire.Your job is
to create a chain reaction.Your job is to cause
and effect.Like a pebble dropping into the pool
of still water,you can create a ripple of
infinite possibilities.This is your
Attributes of a Future Ready Graduate for the
21st Century
Scientifically Literate Science Savvy Strong Team
Contributor Effective Problem Solver Critical
Thinker Finance Literate Citizen Literate
Consumer of Media Health Focus and Life-long
Learner Curious Researcher Capable Technology
User Creative/Innovative Thinker Proficient
Reader Effective Communicator Self-directed
Responsible Worker Skilled Mathematician Relations
hip Builder Knowledgeable Global Citizen
National Science Education Standards
A Definition of Scientific Literacy
Scientific literacy" is the knowledge and
understanding of scientific concepts and
processes required for personal decision making,
participation in civic and cultural affairs, and
economic productivity.

People who are scientifically literate can
ask for, find, predict, or determine answers to
questions about everyday experiences. They are
able to describe and explain orally and in
An Object Lesson
Taking A Close Look at Your Students
  • What do you see?

  • Students
  • Yourself
  • The Teaching Profession

Faces of the Future-You Hold in Your Hands
Valuing the Student
Greatness is the rightful destiny of every
person. Yet, most of our society never
experiences this extraordinary level of
achievement. It is ironic that the climate for
excellence is available, but many do not
recognize the opportunities that are bountiful in
lifeGreat men and women know the secret of
greatness, for it is universal. Sincere effort,
a humble heart, and the desire to improve others,
can raise the station of an ordinary individual
to one of extraordinary achievement. Eunice
Dudley, Co-Founder of Dudley Products Losing
sight of this focus will virtually guarantee the
failure of a host of students. When young
people are provided with great teachers and
training they are destined for GREATNESS.

Our awesome task if fully accepted is...
  • We do so by providing effective classroom
    instruction based upon strong knowledge skills
    and preparing students to excel, persist,
    articulate and communicate ideas.

Powerful Quotes on Education
  • Goethe
  • Treat people (students) as if they were
    what they ought to be, and youll help them to
    become what they are capable of becoming
  • Confucius
  • What I hear, I forget
  • What I see, I remember.
  • What I do, I understand.
  • Aristotle
  • One must learn by doing the thing, for
    though you think you know it, you have no
    certainty until you try.
  • Marva Collins
  • Don't try to fix the students fix ourselves
    first. The good teacher makes the poor student
    good, and the good student superior. When our
    students fail, we as teachers, too, have failed.
    If students are not learning the way we teach---
    we must teach the way they learn.
  • Ropo Oguntimehin
  • Education is a companion, which no
    misfortune can decrease, no torture depress, no
    crime destroy, no enemy alienate, no depotism
    enslave at home a friend, abroad an
    introduction, in solitude a solace, in society an
    ornament. It chastens vice, guides virtue, and
    gives grace and government to genius. Education
    may cost financial sacrifice and mental pain, but
    in both money and life values, it will repay
    every cost one hundred fold.
  • Gary Stager
  • My prescription for effective classroom
    instruction is to make classrooms more social,
    teaching more engaging, and the curriculum more
  • Baba Dioum
  • In the end, students will conserve only
    what they love, they will love only what they
    understand, they will understand only what they
    have investigated.

An Ideal Classroom Your administrator observes
your class. You have been told she will be
staying 5-10 minutes but has now been in your
room nearly 40 minutes. The class was
Sounds like
Looks like
Feels like..
Valuing Petrees Researched-based Initiatives
  • Gallery Walk

Make a list of the important teacher/student
strategies/insights you have gained from your
favorite initiative and indicate your level of
Implementation on a scale of 1-10 on a sticky
note and post. Direct Instruction Structured
Teacher Planning Time Positive Behavior
Support Collaboration Self-Reflection
Science as a Model for Teaching and Learning
  • Seeks to organize a body of facts
  • Engages many in the endeavor
  • Poses questions and ends with more questions
  • Devises procedures and gathers information/data
    to answer the questions
  • Uses prior knowledge to construct new knowledge
  • Records and communicates findings
  • Provides models and explanations

Science as a Verb is Inquiry
  • Active relationship between students, teachers,
    and the science process
  • Engages students in the work of science,
    encourages questions, and supports their desire
    to investigate phenomena.
  • Student engagement is grappling with current
    issues of interest to children, encourages
    questions and solution to those
    questions---Outcome better citizens,
    self-confident, and competent

Comparing Inquiry-based Classrooms to Traditional
Principle Learning Theory
Student Participation
Student Involvement in Outcomes
Student Role
Curriculum Goals
Teachers Role
Constructivism Behaviorism
Active Passive
Increased Responsibility Decreased
Problem solver Direction follower
Process oriented Product oriented
Guide/facilitator Director/
The Constructivist Approach to Classroom
  • Students construct meaning by calling on prior
    knowledge, then building on it.
  • Teachers provide learning opportunities that
    result in scaffolding inquiry What do we know
  • What do we want to learn..?
  • Long-term knowledge is constructed as the
  • active learner engages in hands-on activities
  • social learner interacts with peers
  • creative learner verifies knowledge
  • through ideas and through
  • various art forms

The Science of Learning Trial and Error
  • There is room in life for mistakes and growth
    most often takes place as a result of them.
  • Our greatest glory is not in never falling but
    in rising every time we fall."
  • There is no failure except in no longer trying."
  • Elbert
  • American

Trial and Error as a Learning Strategy
  • Failures can be invaluable learning
    experiences as they may mark the beginning of
    successful endeavors.
  • "Only those who dare to fail greatly can achieve
  • Robert F. Kennedy
  • Failure is simply the opportunity to begin
  • more intelligently.Henry Ford
  • (Handout 1-Successful Failures)

Lesson Planning-Meeting the Learning Style Needs
of Students
  • Be creative
  • Like an artist-Be Creative and Flexible.
    With the number of activities planned you may
    adjust the order as dictated by questions from
    students or time constraints.
  • Make quality lessons that are multi-sensory
  • Make lessons social Cooperative learning
  • Hold yourself and students to levels of high

To be, or not to be The Sage on the Stage
  • Students as problem solvers creates critical
    thinkers providing higher order cognitive
    outcomes than cannot be achieved with direct

(No Transcript)
Teaching Differently Means of Assessing
  • Create student researchers by using alternate
  • Journaling
  • Mapping
  • Conducting interviews
  • Photographic journal-Documentaries
  • Storytelling
  • Audio taping
  • Artwork


Learner Centered Classrooms
Where are you on the continuum?
Valuing the Student through Effective Planning
  • Rigor is teaching aligned to the SCOS in an
    environment where each student is supported and
    expected to demonstrate learning at high levels.

Lesson Alignment congruence or match between
curriculum, instruction, and assessment
Curriculum (what is written)
Student Achievement
Assessment (what is tested)
Instruction (what is taught)
Making the Focus of the Observation Clearer
Student achievement in connection with the
lesson plan(Again there must be an alignment
between the three)
Objective (the skill from the NCSCOS)
  • Student
  • Achievement

Essential Question (the focus for the lesson
and what students should learn)
Student Active Participation (what the
students are doing to answer the EQ)
Classroom Focus
  • the SCOS objective
  • the essential question(s) (EQ)
  • the student active participation

There must be an alignment between the three!
The Change of Focus and Advantages of
Inquiry-based Instruction
  • Students become the experts.
  • Students construct their own knowledge through
    the science process skills rather than lecture
    being the primary mode of instruction.
  • Students work in collaborative pairs or groups.
  • Students design and conduct authentic
  • Students gain life-long familiarity with

Pyramid of Learning
  • of what we READ
  • of what we HEAR
  • of what we SEE
  • of what we both SEE/HEAR
  • of what we DISCUSS w/others
  • of what we EXPERIENCE personally
  • of what we teach to others

The Science of Learning The Retention,
Application, and Transfer of Knowledge and Skills
Learning Activities
Our Involvement Level
We Tend To Learn
10 of what we read
Verbal Receiving
20 of what we hear
Hearing Words
30 of what we see
Visual Receiving
Looking at Pictures
Watching a Movie
50 of what we hear and see
Looking at an Exhibit
Watching a Demonstration
Seeing it Done on Location
70 of what we say
Receiving and Participating
Participating in Discussion
Giving a Talk
90 of what we both say and do
Doing a Dramatic Presentation
Simulating the Real Experience
Doing the Real Thing
Learning Concepts, 10/2005
Active Learning
  • Active Learning
  • Student-centered
  • Student choice or influence
  • Students must analyze, evaluate, and/or create
  • Teacher as facilitator
  • Rubrics used for formative and summative

Inquiry-basedActive Learning
Instructional Model Description Alternate Assessment/ Assignments
Performance Any assignment where students do something Role play, skit, readers theater, music, speech
Portfolio Any assignment where students collect their work Portfolio, chapbook, collection
Project Any assignment where students make something Model, drawing, display, board game, manipulative, physical product, artwork, storytelling, photographic journal, documentary
Inquiry Any assignment where students ask and answer exploratory questions Research, presentation, essay, debate
Problem Any assignment where students solve open-ended problems Experiment, essay, log, debate, solution
Cooperative learning Any assignment where students work together Reading, summarizing, performance, project, presentation, written product
Vocabulary Acquisition EQ How do you provide
depth to vocabulary acquisition?
Each Content Area is a Second Language
  • Mastery of a single content area requires the
    acquisition of many new terms.
  • The greatest stumbling block
  • for students is the vocabulary.

The Montillation of Traxoline
  • It is very important that you learn about
    traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter.
    It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians
    gristeriate large amounts of fevon and then
    bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may
    well be one our most lukized snezlaus in the
    future because of our zionter lescelidge.
  • What is traxoline?
  • Where is traxoline montilled?
  • What process is used to manufacture traxoline?
  • Why is it so important to learn about traxoline?

Increasing Student Vocabulary (Acrostic Poems)
  • Acrostic poems are formed using the letters of
    the term you wish to manipulate.
  • Brain
  • Billions of nerve cells
  • Rapid recall of facts
  • Anterior portion controls involuntary functions
  • Interprets impulses
  • Neurons Transmit messages

Your Turn with Acrostics
  • Brain
  • Blood is supplied to bring oxygen
  • Records memories
  • Always working
  • Imagining plans
  • Neurons send impulses that tell the body
    what to do
  • ratio
  • poem
  • Cells
  • Weather

Other Vocabulary Strategies
  • Acrostics
  • Vocabulary cubes
  • KIM Method
  • Concept Maps
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Frayer Diagram
  • Concept Definition Map
  • Vocabulary Web
  • Graphic Organizers

Graphic Organizers-A Brain-based Strategy
  • Organizing what students need to know

Graphic Organizers
  • When students construct graphical
    representations of text, they better understand
    which ideas are important, how they relate, and
    what points are unclear.
  • -Jones, Pierce, Hunter
  • Teaching Students to Construct Graphic
    Representations Educational Leadership. 46(1988)

The Frayer Model
The Frayer Model
Definition Characteristics
Examples Picture
Definition Characteristics
Examples Picture
The Butterfly StoryA Science Life Lesson in
One day, a small opening appeared in a cocoon a
man sat and watched for the butterfly for several
hours as it struggled to force its body through
that little hole.
Then, it seemed to stop making any progress. It
appeared as if it had gotten as far as it could
and it could not go any further.
So the man decided to help the butterfly he took
a pair of scissors and opened the cocoon.The
butterfly then emerged easily. But it had a
withered body, it was tiny and with shriveled
The man continued to watch because he expected
that, at any moment, the wings would open,
enlarge and expand, become firm, and be able to
support the butterflys body.
Neither happened! In fact, the butterfly spent
the rest of its life crawling around with a
withered body and shriveled wings. It never was
able to fly.
What the man, in his kindness and his goodwill
did not understand was that the restricting
cocoon and the struggle required for the
butterfly to get through the tiny opening,
through infinite wisdom was the way of forcing
fluid from the body of the butterfly into its
wings, so that it would be ready for flight once
it achieved its freedom from the cocoon.
The lesson is-- sometimes struggles are exactly
what we need in life. If our students are
allowed to go through life without challenges,
it will cripple them. They may not be as strong
as they could be and may NEVER be ABLE to FLY.
Teaching Persistence
  • Finding and Duplicating Patterns-A Lesson in
  • Dots, Dots and More Dots

Brain-Based Strategies-Engaging the Brain (3
Repetitions Make an Impression Providing Hooks
and Connections)
  • Writing-Journaling
  • Storytelling
  • Mnemonic devices
  • Visuals
  • Movement
  • Role Play
  • Visualization
  • Metaphor-Analogy
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • Music
  • Use of Graphic Organizers
  • Drawing
  • Humor
  • Discussion
  • Games
  • Projects
  • Fieldtrips
  • Work Study
  • Technology
  • Manipulation

Worksheets Dont Grow Dendrites-Marcia Tate
Scientific Recipe for Student SuccessStir and
Large Amount of High Teacher Expectation for All Students Even Higher Amounts of Teacher Planning/Preparation based on the SCOS Large Doses of Passion Sprinkled with Humor
Making the Connections
  • Reading-Math-Science
  • Reading is the content of the curriculum
  • Math is the language of science
  • Science Reading MathScience Literacy

A Towering Problem
  • Using the set of index cards create the tallest
  • Plan your strategy and then construct your tower.
    Ready- Set- Go.

Time for Reflection

Effective Teacher Characteristics
  • High energy instruction
  • Classroom ownership and responsibility to
  • Entertaining multiple points of View
  • Lesson/Activities aligned with NC Goals and
  • EQ posted and referred to constantly
  • Use of technology
  • Has high expectations of all students
  • Connects content to previous material
  • Asks probing higher level questions to gauge
  • Constantly assesses student learning
  • Manipulatives frequently used
  • Engages students in reading and writing

Effective Student Characteristics
  • All students engaged in inquiry-making careful
    observations and recording them in science
    notebooks-Follow rules of safety
  • Able to explain their assigned tasks
  • Students correctly use the vocabulary of science
  • Roles assigned in group activities

In Summary
  • Believe in the value of every child.
  • Hold Students to High Expectations.
  • Believe that all children can learn and be
    willing to invest tremendous energy and their
  • Use the research strategies-brain-based
  • Impart that greatness and success result from
    hard work.

  • Teach students the common courtesies and honesty
    through your actions.
  • Teach them to respect themselves and others as
    they observe you preserving their dignity and
    that of others.

High Teacher ExpectationHigh Student Performance
It All Adds up-
Teachers with Heart Make the Difference