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Title: Aim: How did the Enlightenment in Europe come about?


1
Aim How did the Enlightenment in Europe come
about?
2
The Scientific Method
http//physics.ucr.edu/wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/n
ode6.html
3
Major Figures of the Scientific Revolution
  • Galileo
  • Kepler
  • Vesalius
  • Harvey
  • Newton

4
Galileo (1564-1642)
proved the heliocentric theory
http//www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematic
ians/Galileo.html
5
Kepler (1571-1630)
demonstrated how planets orbit the earth
http//www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/PictDispla
y/Kepler.html
6
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Founder of modern anatomy
http//www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/innovators/bio_ves
alius.html
7
Harvey (1578-1657)
explained the circulation of blood
http//www.sjsu.edu/depts/Museum/harvey.html
8
Newton (1643- 1727)
formulated the laws of gravity
http//www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematic
ians/Newton.html
9
What does it mean to be Enlightened?
10
The Enlightenment (1700s)
  • Enlightened thinkers believed in
  • Science and natural law (that laws govern human
    nature)
  • Rationalism (the power of human reason)
  • People can live by these laws and solve societys
    problems

11
Enlightened Principles
  • End to injustice, inequality, and superstition
  • Tolerance of all religions
  • Breakdown of institutions like the Church that
    were corrupt and were not based on natural law
    and human reason

Petersons AP Success World History 3rd Edition
12
SALONS
  • Salons were parlors where people met to have
    enlightened discussions.
  • Guests would include philosophes, writers, poets,
    and artists.
  • Both men and women attended salons.
  • One of the great salons was hosted by
    Marie-Therese Geoffrin. Voltaire attended her
    salon.

13
The Chinese Influence on the Enlightenment
  • In 1601 an Italian Jesuit, Matteo Ricci began a
    Catholic mission in China.
  • By 1700 the Catholic mission had converted about
    250,000 Chinese to Christianity.
  • The Europeans there were very well-educated and
    the Board of Astronomy was placed under their
    charge until 1838.

Columbia.edu
14
Ricci in China
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi(???) (right)
in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements
(????).
1602 map of Far East by Ricci
Images wikipedia
15
European Views of the East
  • The Europeans in China wrote home about the
    advanced culture of the Chinese during the 18th
    century.
  • This inspired European thinkers because the
    Chinese were not Christian, and yet maintained a
    moral society.
  • The form of government was most inspiring to
    European philosophes.

Columbia.edu
16
Chinese Government
  • Although he was seemingly an absolute monarch,
    the Chinese emperor was limited by Confucian
    principles.
  • The people are the most important element in the
    state the sovereign is the least.
  • The Chinese were viewed as a land that did not
    have an unfair feudal system. Their government
    was admired because of the civil service exam.

Columbia.edu
Google images
17
Is this surprising?
  • The Chinese had other ideas that traveled to the
    West!

Shutterstock.com
18
http//64.233.161.104/search?qcacheawO8lbGH2QYJ
afe.easia.columbia.edu/chinawh/web/s10/ideas.pdfA
ChineseCinderellacolumbiahlenglusctclnkc
d1
Google images
19
Famous Figures of the Enlightenment
  • Kant
  • Locke
  • Hobbes
  • Rousseau
  • Montesquieu
  • Voltaire
  • Beccaria

20
Immanuel Kant
  • Enlightenment is man's emergence from his
    self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the
    inability to use one's understanding without
    guidance from another. This immaturity is
    self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of
    understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage
    to use it without guidance from another. Sapere
    Aude! dare to know Have courage to use your
    own understanding!--that is the motto of
    enlightenment. (1784)

http//www.philosophypages.com/ph/kant.htm
http//www.english.upenn.edu/mgamer/Etexts/kant.h
tml
Q Why do you think it takes courage to
become enlightened?
21
John Locke
  • Sec. 87. Man being born, as has been proved, with
    a title to perfect freedom, and an uncontrolled
    enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the
    law of nature, equally with any other man, or
    number of men in the world, hath by nature a
    power, not only to preserve his property, that
    is, his life, liberty and estate, against the
    injuries and attempts of other men but to judge
    of, and punish (those who break) that law
    because no political society can be, nor subsist,
    without having in itself the power to preserve
    the propertyof all those of that society
  • -Two Treatises of Government
  • 1690

http//plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/
http//www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.h
tmlCHAPTER20II20Of20the20State20of20Nature
22
Thomas Hobbes
  • The condition of man
  • in the state of nature
  • is a condition of war
  • of everyone against
  • everyone.

Q Why do you think Hobbes was a supporter of
Absolutism?
http//oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosopher
s/hobbes.html
23
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU
http//www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/220/rousseau
2.doc
24
Montesquieu The Spirit of the Laws, 1748
In every government there are three sorts of
power the legislative the executive, in respect
to things dependent on the law of nations and
the executive, in regard to things that depend on
the civil law The political liberty of the
subject is a tranquility of mind, arising from
the opinion each person has of his safety. In
order to have this liberty, it is requisite the
government be so constituted as one man need not
be afraid of another.
http//www.epistemelinks.com/Main/Philosophers.asp
x?PhilCodeMon2
Fordham.edu
25
MONTESQUIEU
SEPARATION OF POWERS
Q Why would one man not need be afraid of
another if the powers of government were Divided
among different branches?
26
Voltaire A Treatise on Toleration (1763)
  • Chapter 22 On Universal Tolerance
  • It does not require great art, or magnificently
    trained eloquence, to prove that Christians
    should tolerate each other. I, however, am going
    further I say that we should regard all men as
    our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The
    Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes,
    without doubt are we not all children of the
    same father and creatures of the same God?

Fordham.edu
27
Modern History Sourcebook Cesare Beccaria
Essay on Crimes and Punishments
No man can be judged a criminal until he be
found guilty nor can society take from him the
public protection until it have been proved that
he has violated the conditions on which it was
granted. What right, then, but that of power, can
authorize the punishment of a citizen so long as
there remains any doubt of his guilt? This
dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not
guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the
punishment ordained by the laws, and torture
becomes useless, as his confession is
unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the
innocent for, in the eye of the law, every man
is innocent whose crime has not been proved.
Fordham.edu
28
Aim To what extent did the Enlightenment have
global effects?
29
Enlightened Despots
  • Is this term an oxymoron?

30
Frederick II Essay on Forms of Government
  • Rulers should always remind themselves that
    they are men like the least of their subjects.
    The sovereign is the foremost judge, general,
    financier, and minister of his country, not
    merely for the sake of his prestige. Therefore,
    he should perform with care the duties connected
    with these offices. He is merely the principal
    servant of the State. Hence, he must act with
    honesty, wisdom, and complete disinterestedness
    in such a way that he can render an account of
    his stewardship to the citizens at any moment.
    Consequently, he is guilty if he wastes the money
    of the people, the taxes which they have paid, in
    luxury, pomp and debauchery. He who should
    improve the morals of the people, be the guardian
    of the law, and improve their education should
    not pervert them by his bad example.

Social studies school service
Fordham.edu
31
Catherine the Great (ruled 17621796)
  • 13. What is the true End of Monarchy? Not to
    deprive People of their natural Liberty but to
    correct their actions, in order to attain the
    supreme Good.
  • 33. The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure
    the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible.
  • 34. The Equality of the Citizens consists in
    this that they should all be subject to the same
    Laws.

Fordham.edu Social studies school service
Draft of a Russian law code by Catherine in 1767
32
Q Based on what we have learned about Catherine
the Great, do you believe she was truly
enlightened?
33
Joseph II (ruled 17651790)
  • Ruled as coregent with his mother until 1780
  • Josephs reforms
  • Religious toleration
  • Control over the Catholic Church
  • Abolition of serfdom

Social studies school service
34
Japan
  • CLOSED COUNTRY EDICT OF 1635
  • 1. Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave
    for foreign countries. 2. No Japanese is
    permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who
    attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed.
    The ship so involved must be impounded and its
    owner arrested, and the matter must be reported
    to the higher authority. 3. If any Japanese
    returns from overseas after residing there, he
    must be put to death. 4. If there is any place
    where the teachings of the Catholic priests is
    practiced, the two of you must order a thorough
    investigation. 5. Any informer revealing the
    whereabouts of the followers of the priests must
    be rewarded accordingly. If anyone reveals the
    whereabouts of a high ranking priest, he must be
    given one hundred pieces of-silver. For those of
    lower ranks, depending on the deed, the reward
    must be set accordingly. 6. If a foreign ship
    has an objection (to the measures adopted) and it
    becomes necessary to report the matter to Edo,1
    you may ask the Omura2 domain to provide ships to
    guard the foreign ship. . . . 7. If there are
    any Southern Barbarians3 who propagate the
    teachings of the priests, or otherwise commit
    crimes, they may be incarcerated in the prison. .
    . .8. All incoming ships must be carefully
    searched for the followers of the priests.

Wfu.edu
35
The Western Influence on Japan
  • Western ideas penetrated Japan via the Dutch
    despite the Tokugawa policy of isolationism.
  • Except for books on Christianity, a ban on
    western books was removed in 1720.
  • In 1736 the importation and translation of Dutch
    literature on astronomy were ordered by the
    shogun Yoshimune Tokugawa.
  • There were translations of western books on
    physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography,
    navigation and military tactics.

http//coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/APM/TXT/low-m
-02-96.html
36
A Chinese account of the West
  • Hsieh Ch 'ing kao (1765-1822) was illiterate and
    went blind during the course of his travels. Thus
    the places he had seen were deeply etched in his
    memory. Toward the end of his life, he dictated
    his account to one of the local schoolboys. While
    it is possible that he traveled to America, as
    his excerpt suggests, it is more likely that he
    heard tales of the invention of the steamship
    rather than saw.
  • (Portugal) "Religion plays a dominant part in the
    lives of these people. Whenever anyone would
    commit a crime, he would go to the priest in the
    church and confess his sins and repent, after
    which he would be absolved by the priest. The
    priest is strictly forbidden to tell others what
    he has heard he would be hanged if he did so.
    When a king ascends the throne, he does not take
    a new reign title, but follows the Christian
    calendar. There are also womenfolk who withdraw
    from the world and live apart in convents.
  • (America) is a small isolated island in the
    middle of the ocean. It could be reached by
    sailing west for about ten days from England.
    Formerly it was part of England but now is an
    independent country, although the customs and
    practices of the two countries still remain
    alike.

Q Why is it likely that Hsieh had not visited
America?
http//academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/t
exts/hai-lu.html
37
Africa
  • Olaudah Equiano, an Ibo from Nigeria, was just 11
    years old when he was kidnapped into slavery. He
    was held captive in West Africa for seven months
    and then sold to British slavers, who shipped him
    to Barbados and then took him to Virginia. After
    serving a British naval officer, he was sold to a
    Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who allowed him
    to purchase his freedom in 1766. In later life,
    he played an active role in the movement to
    abolish the slave trade.
  • My father, besides many slaves, had a numerous
    family, of which seven lived to grow up,
    including myself and a sister, who was the only
    daughter. As I was the youngest of the sons, I
    became, of course, the greatest favorite of my
    mother, and was always with her and she used to
    take particular pains to form my mind. I was
    trained up from my earliest years in the arts of
    agriculture and war and my mother adorned me
    with emblems, after the manner of our greatest
    warriors. In this way I grew up till I was turned
    the age of eleven, when an end was put to my
    happiness in the following manner--Generally,
    when the grown people in the neighborhood were
    gone far in the fields to labor, the children
    assembled together in some of the neighborhood's
    premises to play and commonly some of us used to
    get up a tree to look out for any assailant, or
    kidnapper, that might come upon us for they
    sometimes took those opportunities of our
    parents' absence, to attack and carry off as many
    as they could seize.

Newsreel.org
38
Diagram of the slave ship Brooks
http//www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/
storyofafrica/9chapter5.shtml
39
TRIANGLE TRADE
http//beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3487
/lembrich/seminar52.html
40
THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
  • http//beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3487
    /lembrich/seminar53.html

41
The Plight of Africans is revealed to the West
  • http//courses.wcupa.edu/wanko/LIT400/Africa/Equia
    no.htm

42
How were women affected by the Enlightenment?
43
  • On Julie de Lespinasse
  • From Memoir of Baron de Grimm
  • Her circle met daily from five o'clock until nine
    in the evening. There we were sure to find choice
    men of all orders in the State, the Church, the
    Court,-military men, foreigners, and the most
    distinguished men of letters. Every one agrees
    that though the name of M. d'Alembert may have
    drawn them thither, it was she alone who kept
    them there. Devoted wholly to the care of
    preserving that society, of which she was the
    soul and the charm, she subordinated to this
    purpose all her tastes and all her personal
    intimaciesPolitics, religion, philosophy,
    anecdotes, news, nothing was excluded from the
    conversation, and, thanks to her care, the most
    trivial little narrative gained, as naturally as
    possible, the place and notice it deserved. News
    of all kinds was gathered there in its first
    freshness.

http//www.sscnet.ucla.edu/classes/cluster21/wiki/
index.pl?SalonLife
44
MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT
  • It would be an endless task to trace the
    variety of meannesses, cares, and sorrows, into
    which women are plunged by the prevailing
    opinion, that they were created rather to feel
    than reason, and that all the power they obtain,
    must be obtained by their charms and weakness

http//www.bartleby.com/144/
45
Kaibara Ekken or Kaibara Token Greater Learning
for Women in Japan (1762)
  • More precious in a woman is a virtuous heart than
    a face of beauty. The vicious woman's heart is
    ever excited she glares wildly around her, she
    vents her anger on others, her words are harsh
    and her accent vulgar. When she speaks it is to
    set herself above others, to upbraid others, to
    envy others, to be puffed up with individual
    pride, to jeer at others, to outdo others,--all
    things at variance with the "way" in which a
    woman should walk. The only qualities that befit
    a woman are gentle obedience, chastity, mercy,
    and quietness.

Fordham.edu
46
Which areas of the world were affected by the
ideas of the Enlightenment?
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