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Northern Renaissance Art

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Title: Northern Renaissance Art Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Shikellamy School District Created Date: 9/6/2003 9:46:14 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Northern Renaissance Art


1
The Northern Renaissance
2
What new invention allowed the spreading of
Renaissance ideas to other parts of northern
Europe?
  • The Printing Press

3
The Printing Press
  • 1445--Johann Gutenberg invented printing press
    with moveable type (Mainz, Germany)
  • precursors rise of schools literacy (demand
    for books) invention of cheap paper
  • by 1500, printing presses running in more than
    200 cities in Europe and over 15 million books in
    circulation

4
The printing press made possible the diffusion of
Renaissance learning, but no book stimulated
thought more at this time than did the Bible.
With Gutenbergs publication of a printed Bible
in 1454, scholars gained access to a dependable,
standardized text, so Scripture could be
discussed and debated as never before. This item
is reproduced by permission of The Huntington
Library, San Marino, California
5
What effect did the printing press have on the
Renaissance and its people?
  • rulers in church state now had to deal with
    more educated, critical public also powerful
    tool of religious/political propaganda
  • Cheaper books led to a more literate public
  • Bible printed in many languages?easier access for
    the laity
  • Precursor to Reformation?no need for priest to
    read Gods words

6
Other than the printing press, how else did the
ideas and art of the Renaissance spread to Europe?
7
The Spread of the Renaissance
  • A series of battles between French, Spanish, and
    Italian city-states led to the spread of ideas
    and values
  • Teachers migrated out of Italy
  • Students returned to home country after studying
    in Italy
  • European merchants penetrated into Italy
  • Christian missionaries traveled Europe

8
Christian Humanism
  • Focus of movement
  • Sources of reform
  • Summary statement

9
Leaders of the Northern Renaissance
  • Sir Thomas More
  • Erasmus

10
Christian Humanism Reform
  • northern humanists more interested than Italians
    in religious reform educating laity
  • Emphasized study of the Bible and church fathers
  • More interested in providing guidance on personal
    behavior, less materialistic, and focused on
    questions of morality and ethics
  • Emphasized education
  • A need to know society in the North
  • A number of new universities established in the
    1400s in the North, BUT none in Italy
  • Power of humans to reform institutions (Church)
    and moral behavior?reteach
  • Many will become leaders of Reformation

11
Leaders of Northern Humanism
  • Thomas More (England)wrote Utopia (nowhere)
    described a perfect society free of war, poverty,
    and intolerance
  • Utopia possible by following Christian ideals
  • Executed by King Henry VIII

12
Erasmus (Dutch)
  • most influential northern humanisteducational
    and religious reformer
  • Translated Greek and Latin versions of Bible for
    purer version
  • In Praise of Follysatirizes clergys worldly
    ambitions
  • Emphasized tolerance and education
  • Wanted reform of church, not abandonment like
    Luther

13
Humanism Reform
  • Catholic humanist reformers pave the way for
    Protestantism
  • Desiderius Erasmus (14661536) most famous
    northern humanist Catholic educational
    religious reformer
  • Germany Reuchlin controversyhumanists defend
    Christian scholar of Judaism on grounds of
    academic freedom
  • England Thomas More (14781535), best-known
    English humanist Utopia (1516)
  • France Guillaume Budé, Jacques Lefèvre
  • Spain humanism in service of Catholic Church
    Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros Grand Inquisitor,
    founder of University of Alcalá, biblical scholar

14
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe
  • No. Europe ? change was driven by religious
    reform, the return to Christian values, and the
    revolt against the authority of the Church.
  • Tendency toward realism naturalism less
    emphasis on the classical ideal.
  • Interest in landscapes.
  • More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life.
  • Great skill in portraiture.
  • More princes kings were patrons of artists.

15
Germany
16
  • Turn of 16th century, heart of European progress
  • Thriving economy?central trade routes
  • Towns sprouted, grew, and traded
  • Banking expanded
  • The Fuggers and other German families controlled
    more capital than all the Italian bankers and
    other Europeans combined

17
Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)
  • Court painter at Wittenberg from 1505-1553.
  • His best portraits were of Martin Luther (to the
    left).

18
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Old Man with a Young Woman
Amorous Old Woman with a Young Man
19
Matthias Grünewalds The Crucifixion, 1502
20
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)
  • The greatest of German artists.
  • A scholar as well as an artist.
  • His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I.
  • Also a scientist
  • Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and
    human proportions.
  • Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance
    is seen in his portraits.
  • ? Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.

21
Dürer Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500
22
Dürer The Last Supper woodcut, 1510
23
Durer The Triumphal Arch, 1515-1517
24
Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse woodcut,
1498
25
England
26
  • Renaissance fostered by the reign of Elizabeth I
    (15581603)
  • Intense nationalism gave birth to the Elizabethan
    Age
  • William Shakespeare (15641616) reflected the
    influence of dramatists of the ancient world and
    Italian writers
  • Set the standard for the English language

27
Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543)
  • One of the great German artists who did most of
    his work in England.
  • While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus.
  • Erasmus Writing, 1523 ?
  • Henry VIII was his patron from 1536.
  • Great portraitist noted for
  • Objectivity detachment.
  • Doesnt conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.

28
Artist to the Tudors
Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI
(above), 1543.
29
Holbeins, The Ambassadors, 1533
A Skull
30
Multiple Perspectives
31
The English Were More Interested in Architecture
than Painting
Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the
1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury more
medieval in style.
32
Burghley House for William Cecil
The largest grandest house of the early
Elizabethan era.
33
France
34
  • French monarchy renewed commerce after 100 Years
    War?expanded the middle class
  • The bourgeoisie provided an ample source of
    revenue for the royal treasury
  • The taille (a direct head tax on all land and
    property) strengthened the finances of the royal
    treasury
  • Renaissance takes hold in France in mid-1500s

35
Jean Clouet Portrait of Francis I, 1525
36
The School of Fontainebleau
  • Gallery right by Rosso Fiorentino Francesco
    Primaticcio
  • 1528-1537

37
Germain Pilon (1525-1590)
  • The Deposition of Christ
  • Bronze, 1580-1585.

38
The Low Countries
39
  • Became of the center of banking and commerce
  • Wealthier society placed importance on knowledge
    and art

40
Van Eyck -Adoration of the Lamb, Ghent
Altarpiece, 1432
41
Van Eyck ? The Crucifixion The Last
Judgment ? 1420-1425
42
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding
Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
43
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini His Wife
(details)
44
Rogier van der Weyden (1399-1464)
The Deposition 1435
45
van der Weydens Deposition (details)
46
Quentin Massys (1465-1530)
  • Belonged to the humanist circle in Antwerp that
    included Erasmus.
  • Influenced by da Vinci.
  • Thomas More called him the renovator of the old
    art.
  • The Ugly Dutchess, 1525-1530 ?

47
Massys The Moneylender His Wife, 1514
48
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49
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50
Bruegels, Tower of Babel, 1563
51
Bruegels, Mad Meg, 1562
52
Bruegels, The Beggars, 1568
53
Bruegels, Parable of the Blind Leading the
Blind, 1568
54
Bruegels, Niederlandisch Proverbs, 1559
55
Bruegels, The Triumph of Death, 1562
56
Bruegels, Hunters in the Snow, 1565
57
Bruegels, Winter Scene, 1565
58
Bruegels, The Harvesters, 1565
59
Spain
60
  • Did not receive the Renaissance as openly due the
    Churchs apprehension to new ideas.
  • Spains xenophobia (fear of foreigners) limited
    the flow of Renaissance ideas
  • Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote
  • Satirized glorification of chivalry and medieval
    institutions
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