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Mars Exploration

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Title: Mars Exploration Author: Austin Howard Last modified by: atkinson Created Date: 1/24/2008 7:53:30 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mars Exploration


1
Mars Exploration
  • A look into the past, present and future of

Austin Howard ME Graduate Student
2
Outline
  • Mars Exploration
  • Past Exploration Missions
  • Current Exploration Missions
  • Future Missions
  • Research Projects
  • Inspiration
  • Instrumented Pararotors

3
Introduction
4
What have we learned?
  • Mars is cold
  • not a fiery swamp!!!
  • -100o c 0o c
  • Mars has very little atmosphere
  • Surface pressure 6-11 mbar (Earth surface
    pressure 1000 mbar)
  • Atmosphere
  • Not breathable (even for 10 min) !!!
  • Mostly CO2 with traces of nitrogen, argon, and
    oxygen (0.2)
  • Weather
  • Dust Devils
  • Wind Storms (winds measured up to 35 m/s
    Viking)

5
How did we learn what we know?
  • Probes!!!

6
The Mars Curse
  • How many probes have been sent to Mars?
  • 37 as of 2006
  • Of those probes, how many have been successful?
  • Only 18 (thats a 49 success rate)
  • NASA has a little better track record 12 out of
    17 (thats a 71 success rate)
  • Space exploration is challenging!!!

7
Past Exploration Missions
8
In the beginning
  • Mariner 4 (1964)
  • First successful fly-by mission
  • USA
  • Mariner 9 (1971)
  • First successful orbit
  • USA

9
First objects on Mars
  • Mars 2 and 3 (1971)
  • First man made objects on Mars
  • Russian made
  • Lost contact within seconds of landing

10
Viking Program
  • Viking 1 and 2 (1975)
  • First successful landing on Mars
  • USA
  • First color pictures (still in use today)
  • First recorded climate data

11
Pop Quiz
  • How many moons does Mars have?
  • 2
  • What are their names?
  • Phobos
  • Deimos

12
Phobos Program
  • Phobos 1 and 2 (1988)
  • Mission Objective to study Mars and it Moons
  • Russian built
  • Phobos 1 failed on route
  • Phobos 2 captured images of Mars and Phobos but
    failed before releasing probes

13
Mars Global Surveyer
  • Mars Global Surveyer (1996)
  • Complete success
  • Mapped surface of mars
  • 10 years of operation
  • Lost contact Nov 2006
  • Paved way for future lander missions

14
Mars Pathfinder
  • Mars Pathfinder (1997)
  • First mobile platform on Mars Sojourner
  • USA
  • Mission success
  • Spectacular images lead to much publicity of NASA
    Mars exploration

15
Mars Polar Lander
  • Mars Polar Lander (1999)
  • Carried 2 microprobes (Deep Space 2)
  • Crashed into surface (lost contact)
  • USA
  • Lander crashed on surface due to software errors

16
Mars Odyssey
  • Mars Odyssey (2001)
  • Still in orbit
  • USA
  • Detected Hydrogen in the Martian regolith
  • Some scientist believe water ice exists just
    below the Martian surface

17
Mars Express
  • Mars Express (2003)
  • Carried lander Beagle 2
  • Failed during descent
  • Mars Express orbiter success
  • European Space Agency
  • Referenced in Transformers the movie with picture
    of MER

18
Present Mars Exploration
19
Mars Exploration Rovers
  • Mars Exploration Rovers (2003)
  • Spirit and Opportunity
  • Extremely successful
  • Both rovers still in operation
  • Entered 5th extended mission
  • Designed for 90 days on surface, has survived 4
    years!!!
  • Part 1
  • Part 2
  • Part 3

20
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
  • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005)
  • Still in orbit
  • Mapping orbiter
  • Improved telecommunications for data streaming
    from surface

21
Phoenix
  • Phoenix (2007)
  • Search for water below surface
  • Will arrive in May
  • Will land in polar region of Mars

22
Future Exploration
23
Mars Science Laboratory
  • Mars Science Laboratory (2009)
  • Size of mini-cooper
  • Faster, more capable than MER rovers

24
ExoMars
  • ExoMars (2009)
  • 2m drill
  • Similar size to MSL
  • Life marker instruments
  • European Space Agency

25
Astrobiology Field Laboratory
  • AFL (2016)
  • Same size class as MSL
  • Different science mission
  • Will talk more about this later

26
Whats left to discover
  • How does the composition of Mars differ from the
    Earth's and how have the two planets evolved
    differently?
  • How does the composition and state of the
    interior of Mars differ from the Earth's?
  • Is Mars still geologically active?
  • Does Mars have a liquid core?
  • What natural resources are available at the
    surface for future human use?
  • Was there an early dense atmosphere on Mars?

27
Questions cont
  • How did Mars lose its atmosphere?
  • Did Mars once have oceans?
  • What changes in climate has Mars experienced over
    its geologic history and what caused those
    changes?
  • How stable is the climate of Mars today?
  • Did chemical evolution take place on Mars,
    leading to the formation of prebiotic organic
    molecules?
  • Did chemical evolution lead to the formation of
    replicating molecules?
  • If life once arose, is it to be found anywhere on
    Mars today?
  • How did Phobos and Deimos come to be where they
    are? What geology and resources do they possess?
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