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Title: UNIT-3 BEGINNING OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION


1
UNIT-3BEGINNING OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
2
HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK -WORLD
  • The roots of social work education can be traced
    to their international beginnings
  • in Britain and some countries in Europe towards
    the end of the 19"'century.
  • From Europe, the profession spread to United
    States, Africa, Asia and South America
  • 1899-The Amsterdam Institute of Social
  • Work Training is credited to be the first
    two-year training programme with theory and
    practice.
  • Women's University Settlement established in 1887
  • in London by women graduates of Oxford and
    Cambridge. The training pioneered by this group
    evolved into organized courses, and ultimately,
    into professional education for social work.
  • 1903 - the Alice Salomon School of Social
    Work, Germany
  • 1904 - Mary Richmond- the New York School of
  • Philanthropy

3
  • 1920-Chicago School of Social Service
    Administration, the First autonomous
    graduateSchool of social work within a
    university.
  • 1925-South America-Alejandro del Rio School of
    Social Work, offered a two-year programme.
  • 1932-The first institution was a three-year
    diploma at the Cape Town and Transvaal University
    College. The first degree course was established
    at the University of Stellenbosch
  • 1922-The first institution to be established In
    Asia was the Department of Sociology and Social
    Work, Yenching University
  • 1936 - first school of Social Work in Asia goes
    to Tata
  • Institute of Social Sciences, which became a
    university 1964.

4
  • HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN INDIA
  • The first training course for social work as
    claimed by University Grants Commission
  • (Social Work in Education in Indian Universities,
    1965) was organized by Social
  • Science League in Bombay in 1920. This was a
    short-term course meant for voluntary
  • workers engaged in welfare work.
  • The first professional institution that provided
    training for a career in social work was
  • established in 1936 in Bombay. The genesis of
    social work education in India has its roots
  • in this establishment of Sir Dorabji Tata
    Graduate School of Social Work (later known as
  • Tata Institute of Social Sciences).
  • After Independence, Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi
    and College of Social Service,
  • Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad were established in
    1947
  • In 1948, Delhi School of Social Work, (DSSW) came
    under auspices of North YWCA of India
  • with assistance from Foreign Division of American
    YWCA. It is the pioneer institution offering
  • two years post graduate course leading to
    Master's degree.

5
SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
  • CURRICULUM
  • FIELD WORK
  • SUPERVISION

6
CURRICULUM
  • The course of study for Master of Social
    Work (MSW) extends over two academic years.
  • Each academic year is divided into two
    semesters. The first two semesters will have
    common theory papers and field work. The third
    and fourth semesters will have, besides the
    common
  • theory papers, specialization and elective
    theory papers, field work in respective areas of
    specialization and research project.
  • The nucleus of Social Work Education is the
    Field Work Programme which is a fundamental
    component of the curriculum. The fieldwork
    practicum is the central mechanism for
    transmitting theoretical knowledge into the
    practical level of work.
  • Each student is expected to do a research
    project during the course of study. The research
    project work will be started in the third
    semester and continued till the fourth semester.
    The final report is submitted at the end of the
    fourth semester for valuation. The student will
    do a dissertation of the research thesis and
    appear for the viva on the research project.
  • The Block Field Work after the fourth
    semester examinations is compulsory for the
    completion of the MSW course.
  • The students will organize and participate
    in a rural camp during the first year and a
    study tour during the second year.

7
THE UNIQUENESS OF THIS MSW PROGRAM
  • Utilizing the concept, world is a family which
    is derived from
  • the oldest living language in this universe,
    Sanskrit.
  • Focusing on the latest knowledge dissemination,
    application,
  • integration and creation by enriching the
    five senses of the
  • students.
  • Developing a new genre of professional social
    workers, driven
  • by timeless human values, equipped with the
    best of knowledge
  • and skills and committed to serve all types
    of people and
  • nature with love, trust, tolerance, humility.
  • Exploring the frontiers of scientific Social Work
    thought
  • extending it further for the service of
    humanity.
  • Cherishing, uploading, nurturing and living by
    the best of the
  • social values.
  • Learning to listen to people with deep
    understanding and

8
SUBJECT FRAMEWORK FOR SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
  • The social work curriculum has been dynamic
    and changing with the emerging concerns in the
    era of Globalization. The curriculum addresses
    the causes of exclusion, poverty and
    marginalization and ways of altering structures
    while responding to the conditions of poverty and
    deprivation. The M.S.W Programme is designed to
    equip the students with sound theoretical
    knowledge about social work, social welfare and
    development concerns of the poor, and help the
    students to develop skills and insights into
    working with people at the individual, group and
    community levels, and their representatives, and
    network with other groups and professionals
    working on similar issues. They have been given
    exposure to work with all sectors of populations
    such as children, youth, women, elderly, Dalits,
    and people with disabilities.

9
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10
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11
FIELD WORK
  • Concurrent Field Work is an integral part of
    total programme of training in Social Work. Field
    Work Programme consists of observation visits to
    the agencies, institutions and community
    settings, rural camp, study tour and direct
    practice of social work skills for intervention
    under the guidance of professional social workers
    in selected placements. Such placements provide
    an opportunity to the learner to apply theory to
    practice and gain first hand experience.
    Therefore field work in each semester is
    compulsory in this programme and a student is
    expected to have 100 percent attendance. Any
    shortage should be compensated.
  • In the first semester the field work training
    would also consist of observational visits, lab
    sessions, skill based training and placement. In
    all other semesters, ideally 2 working days per
    week shall be set aside for concurrent field work
    of 15 hours per week. Each semester shall have a
    minimum of 24 days of concurrent field work
    spread over 12 weeks.
  • The student is required to submit the report
    on the field work and the field work diary,
    before the commencement of classes on the first
    day of class following the field work days. At
    the end of the fourth semester examinations the
    student is required to do a block placement of 30
    days.

12
EVALUATION OF FIELD WORK
  • i. In-Semester Assessment 40 marks
  • The following components are considered
  • Attendance at the field or agency
  • Activities carried out
  • Methods practiced
  • Field work report
  • Critical Assessment
  • Professional growth

13

EVALUATION OF FIELD WORK
  • ii. End-Semester Examination 60 marks
  • Viva Voce 10-15 minutes per student
  • The following components are considered-
  • Field Work Report
  • Achievements
  • Communication
  • Contribution
  • Skills
  • Practical Knowledge
  • Methods practiced
  • Programmes implemented
  • Attitude
  • Professional confidence

14
SUPERVISION
  • Supervision is the basis of practice
    learning. The objective of supervision is to
    guide a student to acquire social work skills and
    attitudes required for the profession and to
    relate field practice to knowledge acquired in
    the classroom. This objective is achieved by
    placing the students under the supervision of a
    teacher in the Department as well as a trained
    social worker in the agency. The guided
    supervision through individual and group
    conferences on specified days and timings helps a
    student grow as a better professional.
  • The supervisors primary task in the beginning
    is to make the student feel comfortable and
    apprise him/her briefly of the social work values
    and skills. At the onset of the
    supervisor-supervisee relations. The supervisor
    must make some assessment of the students
    ability for social work intervention and his/her
    individual assets, which create suitable learning
    opportunities and environment.

15
  • The Supervisor must strive to
  • Help create a non-intimidating and
    non-authoritarian ambience of learning which help
    the student raise his/her queries and participate
    in the discussion
  • Help the student develop the capability to
    critically examine issues and instances from the
    field
  • Assist the student develops maturity in dealing
    with difficult situations and circumstances and
    learn to appreciate and respect multiplicity and
    diversity of communities and culture
  • Help him/her grow as professional social worker,
    conscious of the requirements of the profession
    and develop capability to manage situations
    independently
  • Help the student to present and discuss his/her
    views, feelings and
  • proposed action in a democratic manner and
    setting
  • Provide feedback to the students about their
    performance
  • Encourage debates on the alternative courses of
    action and help the student to take appropriate
    decisions
  • Enable the student to develop an agenda of
    self-directed life long learning for personal and
    professional development for a career in the
    profession of social work including continuing
    social Work Education
  • Arrange periodic meetings with agency supervisor
    wherein the proposed course of action by the
    student is discussed and an affirmative response
    is obtained from the agency.
  • Provide guidelines to the student on his/her
    records. It should be seen that the records
    should not reflect merely the diary or
    chronological recording of the time spent in the
    field. While commenting upon the gaps in
    recording, insight on the nature of improvement
    to be made by the student may be discussed.

16
AGENCY SUPERVISOR
  • Agency Supervisor should preferably be trained
    social worker.
  • He/She should
  • Provide an overview of the agency, its aims,
    objectives, policies and programmes and
    limitations to the students placed under his/her
    supervisions
  • Plan out students work programme along with
    Department Supervisor so as to maximize students
    learning.
  • Provide on the spot guidance to facilitate
    learning of the student.
  • Provide appropriate intervention in the event of
    the students facing problems viz agencys
    procedural routines, relationship with other
    staff members etc.
  • Agency Supervisor provides students with adequate
    and scheduled time (on a weekly basis) to discuss
    students problem and progress
  • Agency Supervisor provides the students with a
    place to sit and keep his/her field work
    files/records.
  • Agency Supervisor insists on submission of weekly
    fieldwork reports by students. They should be
    advised to go through them and give their
    comments.
  • The Agency supervisor should ensure that log
    sheets reflect and actual work and fieldwork
    hours being put in by the student. Only log
    sheets which have been duly filled in by the
    students should be signed by the agency
    supervisor on regular basis.
  • Agency Supervisor should keep a check on the
    students regularity and punctuality. Some system
    of ensuring this (attendance register) could be
    worked out by the agency supervisor and should
    feel free to contact the Department Supervisor.

17
Unit -3ATTRIBUTES OF A PROFESSION
18
CONCEPTS
  • Attributes of a profession are not fixed but
    rather evolve as societys need for and
    definition of professions change in response to
    changing social conditions and values (Humphreys
    and Dinerman, 1984).
  • Professionalism refers to the degree to which an
    individual possesses and utilizes the knowledge
    skills and qualifications of a profession and
    adheres to its values and ethics when serving the
    client (Barker, 1987).

19
CLASSIFICATION OF PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES
  • Greenwood (1981) identified three essential
    attributes of a profession cognitive,
    monopolistic and normative. The following
    characteristics of a profession can be
    considered as derivatives of these basic
    attributes
  • Cognitive
  • 1. A systematic body of theories and knowledge
  • 2. Formal education in universities
  • 3. Growth in specialization
  • Normative
  • 1. A code of ethical standard with an
    enforcement mechanism
  • 2. Professional associations
  • Monopolistic
  • 1. Professional authority
  • 2. Sanction from the society

20
PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
  • 1.The professional relationship is formed for a
    joint / shared vision / goals (purpose) and not
    as an end in itself.
  • 2. In professional relationships the social
    workers devote themselves to the interest of
    their clients and the needs and aspirations of
    other people, rather than their own interests.
  • 3. The professional relationship is based on
    objectivity and self-awareness which allow the
    social workers to step outside of their own
    personal troubles and emotional needs and to be
    sensitive to the needs of others (Pincus and
    Minahan, 1973)

21
PROFESSIONALISATION OF SOCIAL WORK
  • Normative Attributes
  • Social Work Values and Ethics
  • Meaning of Ethics
  • Ethics is a system of moral principles and
    perceptions about right versus wrong and the
    resulting philosophy of conduct that is practiced
    by an individual, group, profession or culture.

22
  • This code lists the following broad ethical
    principles based
  • on social works core values
  • 1. Value Service
  • Ethical Principle Social workers primary
    goal is
  • to help people in need and to address
    social
  • problems.
  • 2. Value Social Justice
  • Ethical Principle Social workers challenge
    social
  • injustice.
  • 3. Value Dignity and Worth of the Person
  • Ethical Principle Social Workers respect
    the
  • inherent dignity and worth of the person.
  • 4. Value Importance of Human Relationships
  • Ethical Principle Social workers recognize
    the
  • central importance of human relationships

23
Social Works Core Valuescontinues..
  • 5. Value Integrity
  • Ethical Principle Social workers behave in a
    trustworthy
  • manner.
  • 6. Value Competence
  • Ethical Principle Social workers practice within
    their areas of
  • competence and develop and enhance their
    professional
  • expertise.

Cognitive Attributes Hollis and Taylor
(1951) rejected the idea widely held by social
workers at that time that casework, group work
and community organizations are social work
specializations. They observed the need for
social work specializations to be characterized
by functions and not by agency setting. In
specializations by functions they included
advance practice, administration, supervision,
teaching and research. Such specializations
require social workers to explore the whole field
of social work from the chosen approach.
24
ETHICAL DILEMMAS
  • Each state in the US has licensing,
    registration and statutory certification laws
    developed to regulate the practice of social work
    profession.
  • The ethical dilemmas, which social workers
    face in their work, are summarized by Reamer
    (2001) into three categories as follows
  • 1. Services provided to individuals, families
    and small groups or direct practice face the
    issues of confidentiality and privacy
  • 2. Social workers in social policy positions may
    encounter ethical dilemmas concerning the
    allocation of limited resources
  • Ethical dilemmas with reference to social
    workers relationships with their colleagues
    include situations where social workers encounter
    unethical conduct or wrongdoing engaged in be
    colleagues.

25
Unit-3
SOCIAL WORK PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
26
1.Council on Social Work Education (CSWE)
  • The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE)
    was set up in 1952, to set standards under which
    undergraduate and graduate social work
    educational institutions function and is the
    accrediting body for these institutions. All
    states with social work licensing require
    applicants to be graduates of schools accredited
    by CSWE. CSWE publishes the Journal of Social
    Work Education. In 1955, a National Association
    of Social Workers (NASW) was set up through the
    merger of seven organizations. The NASW is the
    cornerstone of social work profession in the USA.

27
2. National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
  • The National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
    is the largest membership organization of
    professional social workers in the world, with
    150,000 members. NASW works to enhance the
    professional growth and development of its
    members, to create and maintain professional
    standards, and to advance sound social policies.
    The mission of the social work profession is
    rooted in a set of core values.
  • NASW CORE VALUES
  • These core values, embraced by social workers
    throughout the profession's history, are the
    foundation of social work's unique purpose and
    perspective
  • SERVICE
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE
  • DIGNITY AND WORTH OF THE PERSON
  • IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
  • INTEGRITY
  • COMPETENCE.

28
  • NASW Code of Ethics
  • Professional ethics are at the core of
    social work. The profession has an obligation to
    articulate its basic values, ethical principles,
    and ethical standards. The NASW Code of Ethics
    sets forth these values, principles, and
    standards to guide social workers' conduct. The
    Code is relevant to all social workers and social
    work students, regardless of their professional
    functions, the settings in which they work, or
    the populations they serve.
  • The NASW Code of Ethics serves six
    purposes
  • The Code identifies core values on which social
    work's mission is based.
  • The Code summarizes broad ethical principles that
    reflect the profession's core values and
    establishes a set of specific ethical standards
    that should be used to guide social work
    practice.
  • The Code is designed to help social workers
    identify relevant considerations when
    professional obligations conflict or ethical
    uncertainties arise.
  • The Code provides ethical standards to which the
    general public can hold the social work
    profession accountable.
  • The Code socializes practitioners new to the
    field to social work's mission, values, ethical
    principles, and ethical standards.
  • The Code articulates standards that the social
    work profession itself can use to assess whether
    social workers have engaged in unethical conduct.
    NASW has formal procedures to adjudicate ethics
    complaints filed against its members. In
    subscribing to this Code, social workers are
    required to cooperate in its implementation,
    participate in NASW adjudication proceedings, and
    abide by any NASW disciplinary rulings or
    sanctions based on it.

29
3.International Association of Schools of Social
Work, IASSW IASSW was founded in 1928 at the
First International Conference of Social Work,
held in Paris. It was initially comprised of 51
schools, mostly in Europe, and was known as the
International Committee. Revitalized after World
War II, the organization expanded its membership
to include a wider range of countries and was
renamed the International Association of Schools
of Social Work. The association has member
schools in all parts of the world 5 regional
organizations in Africa Asia and the Pacific
Europe Latin America and North America and the
Caribbean are affiliated with the IASSW and
represented on the Board of Directors. The
International Association of Schools of Social
Work, IASSW, is the worldwide association of
schools of social work, other tertiary level
social work educational programmes, and social
work educators. The IASSW promotes the
development of social work education throughout
the world, develops standards to enhance quality
of social work education, encourages
international exchange, provides forums for
sharing social work research and scholarship, and
promotes human rights and social development
through policy and advocacy activities. IASSW
holds consultative status with the United Nations
and participates as an NGO in UN activities in
Geneva, Vienna and New York. Through its work at
the UN and with other international
organizations, IASSW represents social work
education at the international level.
30
  • IASSW carries out its purposes through
  • a biennial conference of social work educators,
  • the IASSW Congress
  • Publication of a newsletter
  • presentation at the United Nations
  • the journal International Social Work
  • Activities of Committees and Task Forces
  • funding of small cross-national projects in
    social work
  • education
  • Members benefit from the following
  • Reduced registration fee at biennial
    international congresses.
  • Free subscription to the IASSW News Letter and
    may subscribe to "International Social Work
    Journal", "International Journal of Social
    Welfare" and other IASSW publications at a
    reduced rate.
  • Accessibility to IASSW funding regarding joint
    projects with other schools of social work,
    designed to advance IASSW Mission and to the
    enhancement of cooperation among schools of
    social work world-wide.
  • Free copy of the Directory for Schools of Social
    Work.
  • Participation in ongoing projects related to
    social themes - poverty, macro development, peace
    and human rights, ecology, women, children, AIDS
    and others.
  • Each school has a vote at the General Assembly
    held biennially.

31
CONTACT
  • Secretary of IASSWShirley Fisher (Assistant
    to the President)
  • Post to The Hong Kong Polytechnic
    UniversityDepartment of Applied Social Sciences
    (Rm HJ412)Hung HomKowloonHong Kong

32
4. International Federation of Social Workers
  • Introduction
  • The International Federation of Social Workers
    recognises that social work originates variously
    from humanitarian, religious and democratic
    ideals and philosophies and that it has
    universal application to meet human needs arising
    from personal-societal interactions, and to
    develop human potential.Professional social
    workers are dedicated to service for the welfare
    and self-fulfilment of human beings to the
    development and disciplined use of scientific
    knowledge regarding human behaviour and society
    to the development of resources to meet
    individual, group, national and international
    needs and aspirations to the enhancement and
    improvement of the quality of life of people and
    to the achievement of social justice.

33
  • HISTORY
  • The International Federation of Social Workers is
    a successor to the International Permanent
    Secretariat of Social Workers, which was founded
    in Paris in 1928 and was active until the
    outbreak of World War II. It was not until 1950,
    at the time of the International Conference of
    Social Work in Paris, that the decision was made
    to create the International Federation of Social
    Workers, an international organization of
    professional social workers.The original
    agreement was that the IFSW would come into being
    when seven national organisations agreed to
    become members. After much preliminary work, the
    Federation was finally founded in 1956 at the
    time of the meeting of the International
    Conference on Social Welfare in Munich, Germany.
  • MEMBERSHIP
  • Only one national professional organisation
    in each country may become a member of the
    Federation. Such an organisation may be a
    national organisation or a co-ordinating body
    representing two or more national organisations.
    Each member association or co-ordinating body
    must observe the IFSW Constitution. It should
    especially require from its members regular
    professional training based upon an organised
    sequence of social work education incorporating
    ethical standards of practice and a body of
    knowledge compatible with the social work
    principles. Member organisations shall not
    discriminate against groups of social workers or
    individual social workers on grounds of race,
    colour, ethnic origin, gender, language,
    religion, political opinion, age or sexual
    preference.Admission is decided by the General
    Meeting, and is based on information required by
    the Federation. The IFSW Secretariat can provide
    documents supporting an application.

34
CONTACT
  • The International Federation of Social Workers
    (IFSW) is a global organisation striving for
    social justice, human rights and social
    development through the development of social
    work, best practices and international
    cooperation between social workers and their
    professional organizations.
  • President
  • Mr David N. Jonesc/o British Association of
    Social Workers,16, Kent Street,Birmingham B5
    6RD United KingdomTel (44) 1604 414 345

35
5. Professional Social Workers' Association (PSWA)
  • PSWA is Registered under the Tamil Nadu Societies
    Registration Act, 1975  (Tamil Nadu Act 27 of
    1975)Serial Number 159/2004 
  • PSWA was formerly known as PSWF (Professional
    Social Workers' Forum) S.No. 249/1985
  • HISTORY OF PROJECT
  • 1960s - Informal social workers meetings
  • 1985 - Formal Social Workers Association
    registration in name of Professional Social
    Workers' Forum
  • 2004 - Re-registration in name of Professional
    Social Workers' Association

36
  • PSWA users
  • Social Work Practitioners (Field Academic)
  • Social Work Students
  • Next Generation Students
  • Social Welfare Organisations
  • Government
  • Corporate
  • Media
  • General Public
  • Membership
  • Amount Rs. 100(Student)225(Annual)
    1,025(Life)
  • Mode Cash /Cheque /DD /MO
  • (Please add Rs.50/- for outstation Cheques

37
METHODS OF SOCIAL WORK
  • Unit -3

38
METHODS OF SOCIAL WORK
  • Social work as a profession is a product of this
    century. Although its roots are well established
    in history from the time when people 1st began to
    take responsibility for their neighbors through
    activities which were called charity, poor
    relief, philanthropy and social reform .
  • Objective
  • To remove social injustice
  • To relieve social injustice
  • To reduce redress
  • To prevent suffering
  • To assist the weaker sections
  • To rehabilitate the distress class people
  • Methods of Social work
  • All social work activities are classified into
    six major categories.
  • 1. Social case work2. Social group work3.
    Community organization4. Social action5. Social
    welfare research6. Social welfare
    administration


39
1.Social Case Work(WORK WITH INDIVIDUALS)
  • Social case work is a method which helps by
    counseling the individual client to effect better
    social relationships a social adjustment that
    makes it possible him to lead a satisfying
    useful life.
  • Gordon Hamilton points out that, The
    objective of case work is to administer practical
    services offer counseling in such a way as to
    arouse conserve psychological energies of the
    client activity to involve him in the use of the
    service towards the solution of her/his
    dilemma.

40
2. Social Group Work(WORK WITH GROUPS)
  • Social group work is an activity which helps
    to participate in the activities of a group for
    their intellectual, emotional physical growth
    and for the attainment of desirable goals of the
    groups.
  • Group work as such as a method by which the
    group worker enables various types of groups to
    function in such a manner that both group
    interaction programme activities contribute to
    the growth of the individual the programme
    activities contribute to the growth of the
    individual the achievement of desirable social
    goals.

41
3. Community Organization
  • Community organization is the process of planning
    developing social services in order to meet the
    health welfare needs of a community or larger
    unit.
  • Mildred Barry says, Community organization in
    social work is the process of creating
    maintaining a progressively more effective
    adjustment between community resources commuity
    welfare needs.

42
4. Social Action
  • It s an organized group process solving general
    social problems furthering social welfare
    objectives by legislative, social, health or
    economic progress. The term social action refers
    to organized legally permitted activities
    designed to mobiles public opinion, legislation
    public administration in favour of objectives
    believed to be socially desirable.

43
5. Social Work Research
  • Social work/welfare research systematic
    critically investigation of questions in the
    social welfare field with the purpose of yielding
    answares to problems of social work of
    extending generally social work concept. The
    methods appliesd in social work research have
    been to a largwe extent derived grom those used
    in sociology social psychology as well as in
    history and Anthropology.

44
6. Social Welfare Administration
  • Social welfare administration process is to
    organize to direct a social agency. The
    administrative aspects of social work have to do
    with the organization management of social
    agencies public private, including in those
    terms general administrative relationships among
    ubnits of the same organization, personal
    problems, questions of finance so on.

45
UNIT-3FIELDS OF SOCIAL WORK

46
FIELDS OF SOCIAL WORK
  • Child Welfare
  • Youth Welfare
  • Women Welfare
  • Welfare of the Aged and Infirm
  • Welfare of the Handicapped
  • Social Defence
  • Community Welfare
  • Medical and Psychiatric Social Work
  • INDUSTRIAL SOCIAL WORK

47
CHILD WELFARE
  • The term Child Welfare" is used to describe a
    set of government services designed to protect
    children and encourage family stability. These
    typically include investigation of alleged child
    abuse and neglect ("child protective services"),
    foster care, adoption services, and services
    aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can
    remain intact ("prevention services" or "family
    preservation services").
  • The Integrated Child Development Services
    Programme aims at providing services to
    pre-school children in an integrated manner so as
    to ensure proper growth and development of
    children in rural, tribal and slum areas. ICDS is
    a centrally sponsored scheme.

48
Youth Welfare
  • The underlying aim of most social welfare
    services for young people, apart from those
    services that address immediate basic needs, is
    to prepare them for the assumption of responsible
    roles in the adult world. The majority of
    programs provide adult-supervised leisure-time
    group activities, which may range from cultural
    and social events to athletics to hiking and
    camping.eg.NCC,NSS,Nehru Yuva Kendra

49
Women Welfare
  • The Department maintains 11 Training -cum-
  • Production Centre and 2 Typewriting Institution.
  • Various Income Generation Activities are provided
    to
  • around 225 unemployed girls.
  • Widow Pension is also provided by this Dept. to
    464
  • needy widows _at_ Rs.350/- per beneficiary.
  • One (1) Working Women Hostel with 32 bedded
  • capacity is maintained by the Department and
  • proposed to establish 3 more Working Women
  • Hostels during 10th Plan. The Department is also
  • campaigning against dowry, child marriage,
    prostitution and
  • immoral traffic.

50
Welfare of the Aged and Infirm
  • Under this scheme,  Department of Social
    Welfare, is providing financial assistance to the
    old aged infirmed persons / destitute under
    Manipur Old Age Pension Rules continuously. A sum
    of Rs. 100/- p.m has been given to these  old and
    aged persons as pension. It is preferably given
    to low income group and handicaps (both male and
    female). 
  • Old Age Homes
  • To take care of the old and aged person both
    male and female, Govt. is giving grant-in-aid to
    Registered NGOS to run the homes.

51

Social Defence
  • Assisting the Government in Policy formulation on
    the administration of Juvenile Justice,
    Prevention and combating trafficking and
    commercial sexual exploitation of children and
    women.
  • Running programmes and activities for children
    in difficult circumstance like street children,
    children of prostitutes and children from
    families whose parents are infected by
    communicable diseases like HIV / AIDs.
  • Ensuring protection and development of children
    and women from significant harm through
    institutional, non-institutional and out-reach
    programmes.
  • Co-ordination and networking with allied systems
    like Police, Judiciary, Civil society, NGOs,
    Corporate sector etc., to ensure protection and
    development of children and women who are living
    in vulnerable condition.
  • Running and Maintaining of child care
    institutions like Observation Homes, Special
    Homes, Shelter Homes, drop in centres, children's
    homes etc.,

52
Community Welfare
  • We are all social beings. We live in society
    and generally prefer to do so. Like us, all
    members of society desire to have the facilities
    of life and peace of mind. The noble people live
    in society only with the inspiring idea that all
    people in society should have their due share of
    happiness and benefits. It is through them that
    the spirit of community welfare evolves in the
    society

53

Welfare of the Handicapped
  • Helping the handicapped persons to fully
    participate in social and national life of the
    country is one of the important programmes.
  • Various states, which provide artificial limbs
    free of cost to needy persons through their
    centres as well as by organising camps. These
    centres provide artificial limbs, calipers,
    hearing aids, medicines, special shoes, and tri-
    cycles. In addition, there are mobile workshops
    which manufacture artificial limbs and service.

54
Medical and Psychiatric Social Work
  • In the medical field a Social Worker may be
    involved in rehabilitating critically ill
    patients or those who face permanent disability.
    They are trained to help people to come in terms
    with their disabilities and also in counselling
    and giving practical assistance to such patients
    and their families.
  •  
  • Psychiatric Social Workers work in child guidance
    clinics or psychiatric unit of hospitals. They
    work with children and adolescents having
    behavioral problems, phobias, withdrawal symptoms
    etc. In hospitals they work with various kinds of
    patients like those suffering with chronic
    depression or drug addiction and help the
    Psychiatrist in finding out the root cause of the
    problem and thereafter continue to work as
    facilitators in the treatment process.

55
The Envisaged Tasks of the Medical Social Worker
  • The medical social worker is involved in the
    following areas
  • DIRECT SERVICE TO THE CLIENT SYSTEM
  • TEAMWORK
  • ADMINISTRATION
  • TEACHING
  • SUPERVISION
  • SELF-DEVELOPMENT
  • COMMUNITY HEALTH

56
INDUSTRIAL SOCIAL WORK
  • Personnel Social Work (HRM) is a systematic way
    of helping individual and groups towards a better
    adaptation to the working situation.
  • Social problems in an enterprise arise
  • whenever an individual employee or a
  • group and the work situation cannot adapt to
    each other.

57
HISTORY /Growth of Personnel Function
  • 1931-official administrator
  • 1948- the welfare officer
  • 1960s-Personnel function emerged in India
  • 1980s- H.R.D. (Human Resourse Development)
  • The term personnel came to be widely used to
    denote the work force of an organisation in the
    1960s and 1970s. Today, they are collectively
    referred to as the human resource of the
    organisation.

58
ROLES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIAL WORKERS
  • According to M.M. Desai, the professionally
    trained
  • social worker can develop his/her programmes at
    the following
  • levels
  • Preventive and developmental
  • Curative
  • Curative
  • Curative programmes are aimed at handling problem
    situations
  • faced by the individual worker by helping him to
    make maximum
  • use of his own potentials and the resources
    offered by the
  • industry and the community. Counselling to the
    individual
  • employees and their families can be given for
    problems, such as
  • alcoholism, indebtedness, and absenteeism, etc.

59
  • Preventive and Developmental
  • 1) Informal educational programmes aimed at
    enlightening the workers on issues pertaining to
    work life like industrial safety, functional
    literacy, saving habits, social security, etc.
  • 2) Promoting the use of health and medical
    programmes for workers and their families (health
    check-ups, inoculation campaigns, family
    planning, informative sessions on nutrition, low
    cost diets, childcare, etc.
  • 3) Personal and environmental hygiene, etc.
  • 4) Developing recreational programmes like
    library services, prime sports gatherings,
    various skill competitions, exhibitions, film
    shows, etc. celebration of cultural
  • festivals, supplementary income programmes,
    hobby classes, vocational guidance programmes,
    etc.

60
The counselling services can be coupled with
concrete assistance bythe way of
  • General Areas of Social Work Practice
  • 1) Securing medical help within or outside
    industry.
  • 2) Planning the family budgets.
  • 3) Helping employee family members in obtaining
    funds.
  • 4) Seeking employment for workers dependents.
  • 5) Referring the worker/his dependents to welfare
    agencies in the community like child guidance
    clinic, marriage counselling bureaus, alcoholic
    anonymous groups and the like, wherever there is
    a need

61
Skills of a Social Worker
  • Social workers are involved in a variety of
    settings, and with a variety of people.
  • SKILLS
  • Understand the range of issues which make up the
    social welfare field
  • Direct intervention with individuals, families,
    groups or community services supervision,
  • Management and administrative skills
  • Legislative and policy analysis and development
  • Advocacy on behalf of individuals, families or
    the larger community

62
SOCIAL WORKER INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  • Interpersonal communication skills and
    verbal communication skills are both very
    significant for Social Work. Communication skills
    and personality development are crucial for
    establishing effectual and reverential
    relationships with service users. These skills
    also play a major role when working with
    colleagues and other social workers for making
    decisions and assessments. Every practitioner,
    practicing social work for children, senior
    citizens and others who are in need of love,
    compassion and basic necessities of life must
    develop habits for good communication skills.
    This is because, this is something that help in
    you in your endeavors while fighting for the
    causes and waiting for consequences. Not only
    your skills, but your level of education and the
    way you behave with them is also crucial for a
    successful career in social work. The current
    system of education is restricted in imparting
    the skills and knowledge of communication. The
    contribution of children and young people
    themselves in teaching and evaluation is very
    erratic. Assessment of communication skills of
    men and women 80 is also essential for healthy
    relationship between peer groups and others
    around you. So, go ahead and develop or improve
    your communication skills for an effective
    relationship with colleagues and a winning career
    in social work.
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