Psychoactive Drugs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 63
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychoactive Drugs

Description:

Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactivity and Dependence Psychoactive Drug A chemical substance that alters perceptions, mood, or behavior Three common psychoactive drugs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:304
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 64
Provided by: Home2235
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychoactive Drugs


1
Psychoactive Drugs
2
Psychoactivity and Dependence
3
Psychoactive Drug
  • A chemical substance that alters perceptions,
    mood, or behavior
  • Three common psychoactive drugs
  • Caffeine
  • Alcohol
  • Nicotine
  • Induce an altered state of consciousness

4
Common Properties of Addiction
  • Physical dependence
  • Tolerance
  • Withdrawal symptoms
  • Drug rebound effect

5
Drug Abuse
  • Recurrent drug use that results in disruption of
    academic, social, or occupational functioning or
    in legal or psychological problems

6
Dependence
  • A state of physiological and/or psychological
    need to take more of a substance after continued
    use.
  • Withdrawal follows if the drug is discontinued

7
Tolerance
  • Reduced responsiveness to a drug, prompting the
    user to increase the dosage to achieve effects
    previously obtained by lower doses of the drug

8
Tolerance
9
Withdrawal
  • The discomfort and distress that follow when a
    person who is dependent on a drug discontinues
    the use of the drug
  • Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of
    the drugs effects Drug Rebound Effect

10
Why do people abuse drugs?Biopsychosocial Theory
11
Drugs and Neurotransmission
12
Neurotransmission
  • The process whereby neurons communicate with each
    other
  • Neurotransmission, especially in the brain and
    spinal cord, helps explain the effects of
    psychoactive drugs.
  • Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal
    neurotransmission.

13
Neurotransmitters
  • Chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps
    between neurons
  • When released by the sending neuron,
    neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and
    bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron,
    setting up the next link in the chain of
    communication.

14
Synapse
  • The junction between the tip of the sending
    neuron and the receptor sites on the receiving
    neuron
  • Call the synaptic gap or cleft

15
Neural Activity
16
Neurotransmitters and the Synapse
17
Reuptake
  • Process where the unused neurotransmitter
    chemical is reabsorbed by the sending neuron

18
Reuptake
19
Psychoactive Drugs and Synapses
  • Psychoactive drugs affect synapses and
    neurotransmitters in three ways
  • Binding with receptor sites (mimics)
  • Blocking receptor site
  • Blocking neurotransmitters reuptake
  • Increase the likelihood of the receiving neuron
    firing

20
(No Transcript)
21
Drug Classifications
22
Four Psychoactive Drug Categories
  • Four different categories we will study
  • Depressants depress, inhibit brain activity
  • Opiates Similar to morphine, produce feelings
    of euphoria reduce pain
  • Stimulants excite brain activity
  • Psychedelic/Hallucinogens/Marijuana distort
    sensory perceptions.
  • Designer Club Drugs fifth category that
    includes variety of psychoactive drugs.

23
Drug Classifications Depressants
24
Depressants
  • Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body
    functioning
  • Includes alcohol and sedatives

25
Depressants
  • AlcoholCNS depressant
  • Barbituratesinduce sleep
  • Tranquilizersrelieve anxiety

26
Alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
  • Found in beer, wine, and liquor
  • The second most used psychoactive drug (caffeine
    first)
  • Slows thinking, and impairs physical activity

27
Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)
  • A measure of how much alcohol is in a persons
    bloodstream
  • BAC of .08 considered legal intoxication in most
    states

28
(No Transcript)
29
What do we mean by one drink?
One 12-ounce can of beer has about the same
amount of alcohol as 4 ounces of wine or 1 ounce
of whiskey
30
Euphoric Affects of Alcohol
  • Alcohol impairs the parts of the brain
    responsible for controlling inhibitions and
    making judgments
  • Results in less self-control and sometimes more
    aggressive behavior.
  • Also depends on environment and expectations.

31
Alcohol, Memory, and Sleep
  • Studies have shown that alcohol impairs memory by
    suppressing the processing of events into long
    term memory.
  • Alcohol impairs REM sleep, further disrupting
    memory storage.
  • Also impairs speech and physical functioning.
  • Death can occur if the brains respiratory center
    can no longer function.

32
Alcohols Affect on the Brain
Alcoholism shrinks the brain
33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
Sedatives
  • Drugs that reduce anxiety or induce sleep
  • Also called tranquilizers
  • Include barbiturates and benzodiazepines

36
Barbiturates
  • Drugs that depress the activity of the central
    nervous system and thereby reduce anxiety
  • Can be lethal in overdose and interact with other
    drugs, especially alcohol
  • Impair both memory and judgment
  • Can create tolerance and physical mental
    dependence
  • Withdrawal can cause REM rebound nightmares,
    hallucinations, disorientation and even
    life-threatening convulsions.

37
Benzodiazepines/Tranquilizers
  • Drugs that depress that activity of the central
    nervous system without most of the side effects
    associated with barbiturates
  • Help to reduce anxiety
  • Include Valium and Xanax
  • Can create dependency

38
Inhalants
  • Chemicals that are inhaled to alter
    consciousness.
  • Paint, glue, gasoline, nitrous oxide aerosol
    sprays.
  • Low doses may relax and reduce inhibition
  • High doses can cause hallucinations and loss of
    consciousness.
  • Toxic to the liver and other organs.

39
Addiction and Depressants
  • Play Depressants and Their Addictive Effect on
    the Brain (424) Segment 22 from The Mind
    Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition).
  • How does withdrawal occur?
  • Whats happening to the neurons of an addict?
  • How are these drugs suppressing the nervous
    system?

40
Drug Classifications Opiates
41
Opiates/Narcotics
  • Drugs that depress neural activity, temporarily
    lessen pain and anxiety and produce feelings of
    euphoria
  • Include opium, morphine, and heroin

42
Endorphins
  • Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to
    pain control and to pleasure
  • Bodys natural pain killers

43
Morphine
  • Strong sedative and pain-relieving drug derived
    from opium
  • Works by preventing pain neurons from firing or
    releasing pain-signaling neurotransmitters
    (Substance P) into the synapse

44
Other Opiates
  • Chemically similar to morphine and have strong
    pain-relieving properties
  • Mimic the brains endorphins
  • Heroin, methadone
  • Percodan, Demerol

45
Drug Classifications Stimulants
46
Stimulants
  • Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up
    body functions
  • Include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and
    cocaine
  • All are at least mildly addictive.

47
Caffeine
  • Stimulant found in coffee, chocolate, tea, and
    some soft drinks
  • Provides user with a sense of increased energy,
    mental alertness, and forced wakefulness
  • Blocks neurological receptor sites that if
    activated, sedate the central nervous system
  • Withdrawal symptoms are sleepiness, fatigue,
    anxiety, insomnia, increased heart rate.

48
Nicotine
  • Stimulant found in tobacco
  • Effects similar to those of caffeine reduces
    fatigue drowsiness and increases mental
    alertness
  • Affects various areas in the brain affecting
    mood, attention arousal
  • Very addictive and does not stay in the body very
    long
  • See video clip on nicotine addiction.

49
Cocaine
  • Stimulant derived from leaves of the coca plant
  • Crack cocaine crystals
  • Blocks the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters
  • Dependency is quick and severe places extreme
    strain on cardiovascular system
  • See the story of Len Bias (4 min)
  • Can cause cocaine psychosis schizophrenia-like
    symptoms including auditory hallucinations
    paranoia, cocaine bugs or tactile hallucinations

50
How Cocaine Works
51
Amphetamines
  • Drugs that stimulate neural activity, speeding up
    body functions, with associated energy and mood
    changes
  • Includes speed, uppers, and methamphetamines
  • Mimic adrenaline
  • Can cause irreversible changes in mood function
    by reducing dopamine receptors transporters.
  • Withdrawal causes fatigue, deep sleep, intense
    depression, increase in appetite.

52
Drug Classifications Hallucinogens
53
Hallucinogens/Psychedelic Drugs
  • Drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory
    images in the absence of sensory input
  • Include LSD, Mescaline and Marijuana

54
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
  • Powerful hallucinogenic drug
  • Also known as acid
  • The effects vary from person to person
  • Users can be dangerous to themselves and others.
  • Similar to neurotransmitter, serotonin.
  • Flashbacks, psychotic reactions can occur.

55
Hallucinogen Affect
  • Hallucination - like patterns Geometric forms,
    similar to those experienced by drug users during
    drug - induced hallucinations, can be seen in the
    embroidery of the Huichol. These Mexican Indians
    used peyote, from which the hallucinogen
    mescaline derives.

56
Marijuana
  • Leaves, stems, resin, and flowers form the hemp
    plant
  • When smoked, lower inhibitions and produce
    feelings of relaxation and mild euphoria
  • THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active
    ingredient. Receptors in the brain for
    anandamide also accept THC
  • Disrupts memory lung damage from smoke
  • Withdrawal may cause insomnia, tremors and
    decreased appetite.
  • Is helpful in decreasing nausea and reducing
    effects of glaucoma.

57
Club Drugs
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)feelings of euphoria, increased
    well-being.
  • Side effectsdehydration, hyperthermia, tremor,
    rapid heartbeat

58
Ecstasy
  • Hallucinogenic drug that produces lower
    inhibitions, pleasant feelings, and greater
    acceptance of others
  • Also called MDMA
  • Blocks serotonin reuptake prolonging its good
    feeling
  • Even moderate users may experience permanent
    brain damage to serotonin nerve endings even
    memory and verbal reasoning problems up to a year
    later.
  • Dehydration, rapid heartbeat, tremors, muscle
    tension, teeth clenching high body temp can
    result.

59
Other Club DrugsDissociative Anesthetics
  • Dissociative anestheticsinclude PCP and
    Ketamine.
  • Deaden pain, produce stupor or coma, may induce
    hallucinations
  • Create feelings of dissociation
    depersonalization
  • PCP or angel dust, ketamine
  • Effects of trips differ for each person
  • Can result in hyperthermia (high body temp),
    convulsions death.
  • Affects neurotransmitter glutamate causing a
    release of more dopamine in the brain.
  • Highly addictive.
  • Long term effects can be memory loss and
    depression.

60
(No Transcript)
61
Prevention
62
High School Drug Use(Johnston others, 2002)
63
Treatment
  • Play Treating Drug Addiction A Behavioral
    Approach (1940) Segment 30 from The Mind
    Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition). Watch
    if time allows.
  • What become triggers for addicts?
  • How do addicts bodies react to triggers?
  • Describe how this treatment works.
  • Describe what withdrawal/addiction is like?
  • What do brain scans show about addicts brains?
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com