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THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT

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THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and the only court mentioned in the U.S. Constitution. The Old Supreme Court ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT


1
THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT
  • The Supreme Court is the highest court in the
    land and the only court mentioned in the U.S.
    Constitution.

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3
The Old Supreme Court Chamber, where the Court
sat from 1810-1860.
4
The Old Senate Chamber, where the Court sat from
1860-1935
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The Great Hall
9
Court Room
10
Conference Room
11
Judicial Review
  • Marbury v. Madison First time a law declared
    unconstitutional
  • Established Judicial Review
  • The Court did not declare another law
  • unconstitutional for the next 50 years (the
    Dred Scott decision).
  • They do not abuse the power of judicial review.

12
Jurisdiction
  • The Supreme Court has both original and appellate
    jurisdiction.
  • Most cases heard by the Supreme Court are appeals
    cases.
  • Original Jurisdiction in cases
  • Involving ambassadors
  • Cases involving state vs. state

13
Justices
  • Nine Justices are appointed by the President and
    approved by the Senate.
  • The ability of the executive branch to choose the
    justices is considered the most important
    influence over the court.
  • Current Chief JusticeChief Justice John Roberts
  • Appointed for life during good behavior
  • May be impeached by the House and tried by the
    Senate.
  • Justices owe no loyalty to a political party.

14
CHECKS BALANCES
  • Congress controls the size and number of the
    courts in the federal system.
  • Congress can regulate jurisdiction except in
    Supreme Court original jurisdiction.
  • Congress establishes judicial salaries
  • Court declares laws passed by congress
    unconstitutional/interprets the law

15
Road to the Supreme Court
  • 7,000 cases are sent to the Supreme Court every
    year. The court hears only 120-150.
  • Rule of 4 four out of nine justices must agree
    to hear a case.
  • Writ of Certiorari an order to a lower court to
    send case notes to the Supreme Court.
  • Supreme Court decisions are called Opinions.
    These are written decisions that set a Precedent.
  • A Precedent is a standard set by the court that
    is followed in subsequent cases.

16
DECISIONS
  • Unanimous Opinion All 9 Justices agree.
  • Majority Opinion Opinion of at least 5 of the
    Justices.
  • Concurring Opinion Justices agree but for a
    different reason.
  • Dissenting Opinion Disagrees with the majority
    and wants written proof why they disagree.
  • A coalition of justices is called a voting bloc.

17
Judicial Restraint
  • The doctrine that holds that the Supreme Court
    should rarely use its power of judicial review or
    otherwise intervene in the political process.
  • Usually associated with conservative judges.

18
Judicial activism
  • A doctrine that advocates an active role for the
    Supreme Court in enforcing the Constitution and
    in using judicial review. An activist court
    takes a broad view of the Constitution and
    involves itself in legislative and executive
    matters
  • Usually associated with liberal judges.

19
Qualifications
  • Article 3 of the Constitution.
  • NO FORMAL Qualifications.
  • Informal qualifications
  • Educated in the law
  • Older and Wiser
  • Experienced in a lower court.
  • Salary 202,000 Chief
  • 194,200 Associate Justices

20
Enforcement
  • After the Supreme Court rules the Executive
    Branch enforces those decisions.

21
DECISIONS
  • All Supreme Court decisions are final!!!!

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  • Supreme Court Facts
  • Youngest justice appointed Joseph Story (age 32)
  • Oldest justice appointed Horace Lurton (age 65)
  • Oldest justice to serve Oliver Wendell Holmes
    (retired at age 90)
  • Shortest term as chief justice John Rutledge (4
    months, 3 days chief justice)
  • Shortest time in the court Thomas Johnson (5
    months, 10 days associate justice)
  • Longest term William O. Douglas (36 years, 209
    days)
  • First Catholic justice Roger B. Taney
  • First Jewish justice Louis Brandeis
  • First African-American justice Thurgood Marshall
  • First woman justice Sandra Day O'Connor
  • President to appoint the most justices George
    Washington (11)
  • President to appoint the most justices in the
    20th century Franklin Roosevelt (9)
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